Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society Vol 135 – 2014

Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society Volume 135 - 2014The Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society Vol 135 – 2014 is out now and available at the Dorset County Museum shop for £15.00. For more enquiries Tel: 01305 262735 or email enquiries@dorsetcountymuseum.org

One of the articles featured in the Proceedings and which is of particular interest this time of year is the folk custom of Mumming Plays.

Mumming plays, like several other winter customs, have enjoyed a huge revival in modern times, largely due to the enthusiasm of morris sides. This paper written by Jerry Bird titled  ‘Mumming Plays in Hardy’s Wessex’, delves into the mysterious origins of the Christmas mumming play, before examining its extent and importance in the County of Dorset.

The Mummers, as remembered by Thomas Hardy for the Mummers' play in the 'Return of the Native' performed in Dorchester in 1920 by The Hardy players

The Mummers, as remembered by Thomas Hardy for the Mummers’ play in the ‘Return of the Native’ performed in Dorchester in 1920 by The Hardy players © DCM

Thomas Hardy famously used a mumming play as a dramatic device in his novel Return of the Native, and seems to have had an abiding interest in folk-drama generally; his last published work which was not poetry was The Famous Tragedy of the Queen of Cornwall, billed as a ‘play for mummers’. He came from a long line of folk-musicians and his cousins performed in the Puddletown play. Despite this, the play he used in his novel appears not to have a local origin, though his description of the players was accurate, and he later borrowed a genuine Dorset script to write a new version for a stage production of ‘Return of the Native’ in the 1920s, thus inadvertently becoming an early revivalist.

Jerry Bird has collected together numerous references to mumming plays in Dorset, and the paper is well illustrated with photographs from the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library and elsewhere. The incident in which the Fordington mummers did battle with the Bockhampton band in Dorchester in 1845 is covered, with contemporary newspaper accounts reproduced here in full for the first time.The author explores the social and economic background to this event in the context of the upheavals of the time amongst the rural workforce, which included rick-burnings and the’Swing riots’ as well as the Tolpuddle Martyrs’ trial.

The well-known folklorist John Symonds Udal, author of Dorsetshire Folk-lore was an early collector of mumming plays, and fortunately the author was able to have access to his original play scripts and notes. There seems to have been a distinctive character to West Dorset plays in particular, which incorporated other traditions such as the ‘hobby horse’ and the Dorset Ooser.

The Appendix includes the scripts of ten Dorset plays, including Hardy’s own version. These are well annotated with extensive notes, and illustrations, including some musical notation and a photograph of one of Udal’s original scripts.

Other Papers in the Proceedings include:

  • Mabel St Clair Stobart 1862-1954: The Lady of the Black Horse, Peter Down, 1-19
  • ‘Primitive Betrothal’: The Portland Custom and Thomas Hardy’s The Well-Beloved, Jacqueline Dillion, 20-32
  • Sir Claude Scott and the development of Lytchett Minster in the nineteenth century, June Palmer, 33-45
  • How the Newburghs of Lulworth came to own Sutton Poyntz, William Egerton, 46-55
  • The Poets’ Christmas Eve: mythology into verse, Alan Chedzoy, 56-61
  • An account of Mary Anning (1799-1847), fossil collector of Lyme Regis, Dorset, England, published by Henry Rowland Brown (1837-1921) in the second edition (1859) of Beauties of Lyme Regis, Michael A. Taylor and Hugh S. Torrens, 62-70
  • An anonymous account of Mary Anning (1799-1847), fossil collector of Lyme Regis, Dorset, England, published in All the year round in 1865, and its attribution to Henry Stuart Fagan (1827-1890), schoolmaster, parson and author, Michael A. Taylor and Hugh S. Torrens, 71-85
  • Mumming Plays in Hardy’s Wessex, Jerry Bird, 86-148
  • The Cyril Diver Project, John Newbould and David Brown, 149-159
  • The Steve Etches collection of Kimmeridge Clay fossils: a Jurassic jewel on the Jurassic Coast, David M. Martill, 160-164
  • Severe drought and exceptional summer flooding: consequences for the South Winterborne macroinvertebrates, J. A. B. Bass, Patrick D. Armitage and J. L. Pretty, 165-166
  • Coastal landslide mapping of the Black Ven Spittles complex, Charmouth, Chloe Morris and Servel Miller, 167-180
  • New insect fossils from the Lower Lias (Lower Jurassic) of West Dorset, Robert A. Coram, 181-188
  • The gastropod and ammonite fauna of two anomalous facies in the Inferior Oolite of Burton Cliff, South Dorset, John Whicher, David Sole and Robert Chandler, 189-197

Archaeology

  • Hengistbury Head, Bournemouth, Mike Trevarthen, 198
  • Wood Hill, Charlton Down, Charminster, Richard Tabor and Cheryl Green, 198
  • 2 Wick Lane, Christchurch, Mike Trevarthen, 198
  • HMP Dorchester, Dorchester, Tom Weavill, 198
  • Max Gate, Dorchester, Mike Trevarthen, 198-199
  • Wall behind Wadham House, 50 High West Street, Dorchester, Richard Tabor and Cheryl Green, 199
  • New sea wall, Kimmeridge Bay, Kimmeridge, Mike Trevarthen, 199
  • Keates Quarry, Home Field, Acton, Langton Matravers, Mike Trevarthen, 199
  • Lewis Quarry, Home Field, Acton, Langton Matravers, Peter Bellamy, 199
  • Bottle Knap Cottage, Long Bredy, Mike Trevarthen, 199
  • Geophysical survey of the South Lawn, Kingston Lacy Park, Pamphill, Martin Papworth, 199-200
  • Limekilns at Inmosthay Industrial Estate, Inmosthay, Portland, Richard Tabor and Cheryl Green, 200
  • Land to the west of Reap Lane, Southwell, Portland, Richard Tabor and Cheryl Green, 200-201
  • Sherborne House, Newland, Sherborne, Richard Tabor and Cheryl Green, 201
  • Belle Vue Farm, Herston, Swanage, Lilian Ladle, 201
  • Geophysical survey of Long Mound, Beacon Knap, Swyre, Martin Papworth, 201-202
  • Chapelhay Gardens, Weymouth, Peter Bellamy, 202
  • Land to the south of Chickerell Road, Wyke Regis, Weymouth, Richard Tabor and Cheryl Green, 202
  • South Dorset Ridgeway: Purlands Farm (Winterborne St Martin) to north of Tatton House (Portesham), Richard Tabor and Cheryl Green, 202-203
  • Cross Farm, Church Street, Yetminster, Richard Tabor and Cheryl Green, 203
  • Dewlish Roman villa: post-excavation report 2013, Iain Hewitt, 203-204
  • The Langton Herring mirror and grave goods, Jon Murden, 205-208
  • The Roman villa at Druce Farm, near Puddletown, Lilian Ladle, 209-211
  • Ower Quay, Keith Jarvis, 212-216
  • The Durotriges Project, phase one: an interim statement, Miles Russell, Paul Cheetham, Damian Evans, Ellen Hambleton, Iain Hewitt, Harry Manley and Martin Smith, 217-221
  • Roman Purbeck Limestone mortars, John Palmer, 222-234
  • Portable Antiquities Scheme 2013, Ciorstaidh Hayward Trevarthen, 235-236
  • Excavation of c. eighteenth-century wall footings at Hive Beach, Burton Bradstock, Martin Papworth, 237-240
  • Roman remains found at Hyde Farm, Shapwick, Kingston Lacy Estate, Martin Papworth, 241
  • The Romano-Celtic temple at Badbury Rings, Dorset, Martin Papworth, 242-271
  • Investigations on the south shore of Brownsea Island by the Dorset Alum and Copperas Industries Project, Peter S. Bellamy, Gill Broadbent, Mark Corney and Clare Wilson, 272-283
  • Investigations at Kimmeridge Bay by the Dorset Alum and Copperas Industries Project, Peter S. Bellamy, Gill Broadbent, Mark Corney, Alan Hawkins, Mike Trevarthen and Clare Wilson, 284-296
  • Investigations on the Studland Circles by the Dorset Alum and Copperas Industries Project, Peter S. Bellamy, Gill Broadbent, Mark Corney and Clare Wilson, 297-310

County Boundary Survey

  • Hampreston: A parish in the counties of Dorset and Hampshire, J. W. Hart, 311-315
  • Boundaries of Dorset, J. W. Hart, 316-319
  • The Dorset County Boundary Survey 2013, Katherine Barker, 320-324
  • The Dorset County boundary at Biddlesgate, between the parishes of Cranborne (Dorset) and Damerham (Hampshire from 1885; formerly Wiltshire), Katherine Barker, 325-333

Reviews

  • A. Eccles, Vagrancy in law and practice under the Old Poor Law, Martin Ayres, 334-335
  • Michael Millgate and Keith Wilson (eds), The collected letters of Thomas Hardy, volume VIII: further letters, Will Abberley, 335-336
  • Michael Hill, East Dorset country houses, Helen Brown, 336-337

Obituary

  • Liz-Anne Bawden MBE (1931-2012), Max Hebditch, 338-339

Natural history reports 2013

  • General weather survey, John Oliver, 340-341
  • Dorset rainfall, John Oliver, 341-345
  • Butterfly survey, Bill Shreeves, 345-349
  • Frome Valley winter bird survey, John Newbould and John Campbell, 350-351
  • Some Dorset plant gall record highlights, John Newbould, 351-352
  • Field meeting reports, John Newbould, 352-355
  • County Boundary Survey visits, Katherine Barker and John Newbould, 355-357

Local auction report 2013, Gwen Yarker, 358-359

Report of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society for 2013, 360-372

Index, 373-376

Notes for contributors, 377-378

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Special guests at Dorset County Museum

Jon Murden, Jenny Cripps, Emilija Marinkov and Zvezdana Popovic at Dorset County Museum

Jon Murden, Jenny Cripps, Emilija Marinkov and Zvezdana Popovic at Dorset County Museum

Representatives from Serbian Embassy in London visit ‘A Dorset Woman at War’ exhibition at Dorchester Museum.

Last week staff at Dorset County Museum were delighted to welcome special visitors from the Embassy of the Republic of Serbia. Emilija Marinkov, Second Secretary of Political Affairs, Press and Cultural Affairs was joined by Zvezdana Popovic when they travelled from London to view the current exhibition A Dorset Woman at War.

The exhibition, which runs until 15th November, recognises a remarkable Dorset woman, Mabel Stobart, who played an important role in Serbia during the First World War.

Jon Murden, director of Dorset County Museum said, “We were thrilled to meet Emilija and Zvezdana from the Serbian Embassy. Mabel Stobart is still regarded as a heroine in Serbia for the part she played during the First World War, and it’s great that they could come down from London to see the exhibition for themselves.”

For more information about the exhibition visit www.dorsetcountymuseum.org

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An Englishman’s Home – a play by Major Guy du Maurier

An Englishman’s Home – a play by Major Guy du MaurierA dramatic play reading provides the final event associated with Dorset County Museum’s current exhibition, A Dorset Woman at War. On 16th October The New Hardy Players will be reading a play originally published in 1909. An Englishman’s Home caused a sensation when it came out anonymously under the name, A Patriot. It later came known to be the work of Captain Guy du Maurier, a British officer. An uncle to Daphne du Maurier, his play was said to have influenced her famous novel, The Birds. An Englishman’s Home went on to be a long-running success and was later made into a film.

“This play was politically provocative and was deliberately designed to frighten its audiences” says Jon Murden, director of Dorset County Museum. “Writers like du Maurier were frequently criticised as scaremongers by leading politicians of the day, but unfortunately their fears were ultimately proved correct by the outbreak of the First World War.”

The semi-staged play will be performed with some costumes and props and is set almost entirely in the sitting room of a suburban house in Essex. It tells the story of a fictional attack on England by an unknown enemy (generally assumed to be Germany). The alarming nature of the story, at a time of increasing tension between Britain and Germany, served to highlight the unreadiness of Britain to repel such an attack and was credited with boosting army recruitment in the years immediately prior to World War I. It also influenced Mabel Stobart, the subject of the Museum’s current exhibition.

Tickets for the play reading cost £7.00 and include a complimentary glass of wine or a soft drink. The event starts at 7.30pm on Thursday 16th October and all are welcome. Tickets are available now from the Museum Shop on 01305 756827. For further information see www.dorsetcountymuseum.org

A British Heroine of the First World War – Private breakfast tour of WWI exhibition by Curator.

Dr. Peter Down

Dr. Peter Down

A private tour of Dorset County Museum’s current exhibition, A Dorset Woman at War, is taking place on Wednesday 17th September. The tour will be led by one of the exhibition’s curators, Dr. Peter Down.

The tour is a great opportunity to see the exhibition up close and hear the story of a remarkable Dorset woman, Mabel St Clair Stobart, who took her medical team to the Serbian front line in 1915. Following the tour, a continental breakfast will be provided in the Museum’s Tea Room.

The tour starts at 8.45am on Wednesday 17th September and tickets cost £12.50. There are a limited number of spaces available and places must be booked in advance.

For further information and to book tickets phone the Museum Shop on 01305 756827 or visit our website at www.dorsetcountymuseum.org.

A British Woman on the Eastern Front a talk by Dr Angela K. Smith

Mabel Stobart in Red Cross uniform, 1914.

Mabel Stobart in Red Cross uniform, 1914.

A Dorset Woman at War, the current exhibition at Dorset County Museum, features the exploits of a remarkable Dorset woman, Mabel Stobart. On Thursday 7th August at 7.30pm, Dr. Angela K. Smith will give an illustrated talk about Stobart and other British women who served on the Eastern Front during the First World War.

In October 1915, Mabel St Clair Stobart led her First Serbian-English Field Hospital along the Serbian front line. But the line was retreating; the combined forces of the Austrian, German and now the Bulgarian armies was more than the Serb soldiers could deal with, exhausted as they were from four years of war. As the retreat escalated into a mass exodus of soldiers and civilians, headed for the mountains of Montenegro and Albania, Stobart’s unit went with them.

But Stobart’s journey into war began several years earlier, on the cliffs above Studland Bay in Dorset, where she set up her first medical training camp. Recently returned from South Africa, and widowed, Stobart had been attracted to the movement for Women’s Suffrage, but had her own ideas about how the vote might best be won. And what better way than demonstrating that women could perform as well as men on the field of battle? Stobart determined to bring everyone in her unit through the retreat from Serbia alive: against all the odds, she did. This lecture examines how she achieved this, and the wider implications for the Dorset woman.

Angela Smith is an Associate Professor at Plymouth University. She specialises in war writing, with a particular interest in the First World War and gender issues. Her latest monograph, Women of the Eastern Front: British Women in Serbia and Russia 1914-19 will be published in 2015.

Entry to the talk is free but donations are encouraged. Doors are open at 7.00pm; the lecture will commence at 7.30pm. A Dorset Woman at War continues until 15th November.

On 16th October the Museum will host a play-reading by the New Hardy Players of a play written by Guy du Maurier. Tickets for the play-reading cost £10.00 and are available now from the Museum Shop.

For more information please Tel: 01305 262735 or visit our website at www.dorsetcountymuseum.org.

WWI Exploits of Dorset Woman Recognised at Dorset County Museum

Mabel Stobart in Red Cross uniform, 1914.

Mabel Stobart in Red Cross uniform, 1914.

The current exhibition at Dorset County Museum – A Dorset Woman at War – recognises a remarkable Dorset woman, Mabel Stobart, who played an important role in Serbia during the First World War. On Wednesday 16th July at 7.30pm, Dr Peter Down will talk about Stobart and what she achieved under impossible circumstances.

In 1915 the world’s worst epidemic of typhus broke out in Serbia, a country already exhausted by war. Around 150,000 people died, including nearly half the country’s doctors and their medical services became overwhelmed. By April 1915 British medical teams, including Stobart’s unit, had gone to their aid.

Peter Down said, “Mabel Stobart took ambulances, X-ray machines and medical supplies and set up a hospital south of Belgrade providing the civilian population with much-needed free treatment.”

When German and Austrian troops invaded the country later that year, Stobart and her women-only team of doctors and nurses were forced to retreat south with the bulk of the Serbian army and then go west over the mountains of Montenegro, to final safety on the Adriatic coast.

On the 800-mile journey over 100,000 soldiers and civilian refugees died of hunger, disease and the cold, but Stobart and her remaining nurses continued to care for them as best they could, with severely diminished resources and equipment. As a result of her efforts, Mabel Stobart is still regarded as a heroine in Serbia today.

Entry to the lecture is FREE but donations are encouraged. Doors are open at 7.00pm; the lecture will commence at 7.30pm.

For further information see www.dorsetcountymuseum.org. A Dorset Woman at War continues until 15th November 2014 – further talks and events based on the exhibition will follow.

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New Exhibition opens at Dorset Museum to Commemorate First World War

Kate Adie and members of the Stobart Family at the Exhibition Launch

Kate Adie and members of the Stobart Family at the Exhibition Launch

A Dorset Woman at War: Mabel Stobart and the Retreat from Serbia 1915.

A special exhibition has just opened at Dorset County Museum commemorating the centenary of the start of the First World War. The exhibition focuses on the story of one Dorset woman, Mabel St Clair Stobart, exploring her life and the role she played during the epic retreat of the Serbian army in 1915.

The Museum has a collection of unique photographs recording Mabel Stobart’s experiences in Serbia. They trace her intrepid journey from the tented field hospital she established near the front line and the relentless 800 mile trek through the Albanian mountains to her final escape from Scutari.

Lady of the Black Horse by George Rankin

Painting of Mabel Stobart – ‘Lady of the Black Horse’ by George Rankin, 1916, Red Cross Museum

Her story is exceptional, not only for the adventures she experienced but because she was motivated by bettering the lot of women. She led her mission to Serbia in the face of opposition from another famous Dorset figure, Sir Frederick Treves, who felt there was no place for women in the Serbian conflict.

The photographs of Stobart’s adventures are highly graphic and do not flinch from the horrors of war. When Kodak developed them for her subsequent lecture tour of America, they were so impressed that they were blown up, mounted and hung in the Kodak head office.

The exhibition reveals the extraordinary story of a powerful and determined woman who frequented the salons of London Society but was also a feminist, playwright and farmer.
A Dorset Woman at War runs until Saturday 15th November 2014. Opening times at the Museum are 10.00am to 5.00pm Monday to Saturday. The Museum will also be open on the first four Sundays in August.

This exhibition is sponsored by:

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Summer Offer links two Dorchester Museums

The KeepSave money on joint visits to both Dorset County Museum and The Keep Military Museum during summer 2014.

Dorchester’s two traditional Museums are combining their forces in a special money-off deal for visitors to the county town.

From Saturday 24th May until Saturday 30th August 2014, a visit to either Dorset County Museum or The Keep Military Museum will automatically give visitors £1.50 off the adult price for the other museum.

This offer is a brand new initiative in an ongoing series of joint activities between the two museums which will also include a new range of learning opportunities for schools and other interested groups.

“We have wanted to run a joint entry deal for a while now, and this summer seemed the perfect time to do it.” said Jon Murden of Dorset County Museum. “Visitors will simply retain their first till receipt or voucher to receive a money-off deal in the second museum they visit – both visits will have to be made between 24 May and 30 August to qualify.”

Chris Copson, Curator of The Keep Military Museum said, “We want people to feel that they can justify visiting more than just one of the museums in Dorchester. If this offer results in more people finding out about the military and general history of Dorchester and the surrounding areas we will be very happy.”

Dorset County Museum’s Rachel Cole explains how both museums are also linking together with a World War I theme in the summer. “We are running an important exhibition, A Dorset Woman at War, from 31st May and The Keep will be opening a brand new Trench display in a few weeks. As our museums are just a few minutes’ walk apart, we want to encourage visitors to visit and benefit from not just one, but both of these important experiences.”

With visitors anticipated to be particularly interested in attractions with a First World War theme this summer, both Museums feel that this is the perfect time for such a collaboration.

A Dorset Woman at War: Mabel Stobart and the Retreat from Serbia 1915

Lady of the Black Horse by George Rankin

Painting of Mabel Stobart – ‘Lady of the Black Horse’ by George Rankin, 1916, Red Cross Museum and Archives, courtesy of Studland Village Hall Committee

Summer 2014 will see a special exhibition at Dorset County Museum commemorating the centenary of the start of the First World War. The exhibition will focus on the story of one Dorset woman, Mabel St Clair Stobart, exploring her life and the role she played during the epic retreat of the Serbian army in 1915.

The Museum has a collection of unique photographs recording Mabel Stobart’s experiences in Serbia. They trace her intrepid journey from the tented field hospital she established near the front line and the relentless 250 mile trek through the Albanian mountains to her final escape from Scutari.  Already in her mid-fifties, she travelled to Serbia with female doctors and nurses whom she had recruited and trained to help the war effort. Her story is exceptional, not only for the adventures she experienced – in 1914 she had been arrested by the Germans and sentenced to be shot as a spy – but because she was motivated by bettering the lot of women. A supporter of the Suffragette movement, Stobart believed that women should earn the vote by demonstrating that they were as valuable to society as men. She led her mission to Serbia in the face of opposition from another famous Dorset figure, Sir Frederick Treves, who felt there was no place for women in the Serbian conflict.

The photographs of Stobart’s adventures are highly graphic and do not flinch from the horrors of war. It was notable that as well as managing all aspects of her medical team she still had an eye to the future by organizing these photographs. When Kodak developed them for her subsequent lecture tour of America, they were so impressed that they were blown up, mounted and hung in the Kodak head office.

Kate Adie

Kate Adie © DCM

The exhibition will reveal the extraordinary story of a powerful and determined woman who frequented the salons of London Society but was also a feminist, playwright and farmer. A born organiser, Stobart was daring and fearless. She buried two husbands and tragically lost both sons in the Spanish flu epidemic. As a result she became a spiritualist with Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and held séances like those shown recently in Downton Abbey!

Dorset County Museum is delighted that former BBC Chief News Correspondent, Kate Adie is lending her support to the exhibition through the recent publication of her latest book: Fighting on the Home Front: The Legacy of Women in World War One.  Her book includes the amazing story of Mabel Stobart and many other outstanding women of that time.

The exhibition opens at Dorset County Museum on Saturday 31st May 2014 and runs until 15th November 2014.

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Kate Adie to talk about the legacy of women in World War One at the Dorset County Museum

Kate Adie © Ken Lennox

Kate Adie © Ken Lennox

Museum staff are looking forward to an exciting event on 8th November when former BBC Chief News Correspondent Kate Adie will give a talk at Dorset County Museum.

Kate Adie will speak on the subject of Dorset and the Home Front, World War I. The talk will be based on her new book about women in the First World War with specific reference to Dorset women such as Mabel Stobart.  Afterwards she will sign copies of her new book, Fighting on the Home Front: The Legacy of Women in World War One.

Fighting on the Home Front The Legacy of Women in World War One Kate AdieThis event forms part of the forthcoming centenary commemorations of the start of the First World War.  Next summer the Museum’s main exhibition is based upon the wartime experiences of a Dorset woman, Mabel Stobart.  Mrs Mabel St Clair Stobart, founder of the Women’s Sick and Wounded Convoy Corps (1912) and the Women’s National Service League (1914) was a supporter of women’s suffrage before the First World War. When the war broke out, she set up a field hospital in Belgium, risking capture by the advancing German forces. Subsequently, with a commissioned rank of major, she served on the Balkan Front where she commanded the Serbian Relief Fund’s Front Line Field Hospital. During the retreat of the Serbian Army in 1915, she and her team of female doctors and nurses accompanied them, providing continual medical support and relief.

“We are delighted to have Kate Adie coming to speak at the Museum,” said Museum Director Jon Murden. “Such a highly respected news correspondent will draw a good audience, and give us an opportunity to welcome people who might not normally come to events in Dorchester. We know she will be hugely popular and her talk will introduce the subject of next year’s summer exhibition, Mabel Stobart, a truly inspirational Dorset woman.“

The talk is free of charge but a donation of £3 is encouraged to cover costs.  As the event is likely to be very popular, seats will be allocated on a strictly first come first served basis. Everyone is welcome to stay behind afterwards if they wish to buy a signed copy of Kate Adie’s new book. Doors open at 7.00 pm and the talk will commence at 7.30pm.  For further information please see www.dorsetcountymuseum.org or telephone 01305 262735.

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