Stolen Images – Pagan Symbolism and Christianity by Peter Knight

Stolen Images - Pagan Symbolism and Christianity by Peter Knight

Stolen Images – Pagan Symbolism and Christianity by Peter Knight

Peter Knight lives in Wiltshire and is the author of eight books on ancient and sacred sites around the world. He is well-known for his talks, workshops and field trips which allow people to connect in new ways with the special sites they visit.

Peter returns to the Museum to talk about his major book ‘Stolen Images – Pagan Symbolism and Christianity. In his lecture, Peter will discuss how ancient Pagan symbols and myths were absorbed into Christianity to usurp pre-Christian belief systems, as well as to encapsulate archetypal power for the benefit of the new religion. Most Christian icons can be traced back to an older origin, and many churches were also sited on ancient holy places. The Church also took over existing Pagan festivals and turned them into saint’s days. This fascinating talk will link Egyptian, Norse, Greek, Roman, Babylonian, Celtic and other cultures to the new religion – you will be surprised at what you find! For instance, he will show how 15 ancient sun gods share the Jesus’ attributes of both a birthday on Dec 25th and being born to a virgin mother!

Copies of Peter’s book will be available on the night. The talk starts at 7.30pm on Friday 22nd May and the doors will be open from 7.00pm. All are welcome to attend and entry is FREE although donations are encouraged.

For further information contact the Museum on 01305 756827 or check the website on www.dorsetcountymuseum.org

Related Sources:

Advertisements

Here lies the Body: Dorset Tenant Farmers and their Tombs a Literary Talk by Tim Connor

Churchyard GraveTim Connor is a retired school teacher who has written several articles on Dorset architecture of the nineteenth century, including Thomas Hardy’s Master: Church building and Reputation in the Dorset Career of John Hicks, published, by Museum, last year.

This talk has a slightly different focus, concentrating on chest tombs of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in churchyards of West Dorset. These monuments have not been studied in any part of England before, and this study, shortly to be published, looks at both the design and social context of chest tombs, of which those of Dorset are turn out to be of considerable interest.

The lecture takes place at Dorset County Museum, 7.30pm on Thursday 19th February and doors are open from 7.00pm. The event is FREE of charge but a donation of £3.00 is encouraged to cover costs. For further information please see www.dorsetcountymuseum.org or telephone 01305 262735.

Dorset County Museum Thanksgiving Party is Great Success

Dorchester Thanksgiving Party Cake

The beautiful Dorchester Thanksgiving Party Cake created and kindly donated by Angel Cake Company

Friday 14th November saw an enthusiastic crowd at Dorset County Museum celebrating Thanksgiving with new friends in Dorchester, Massachusetts.

The fundraising event brought together people from both sides of the Atlantic in a joint venture to raise money for Dorset County Museum’s new Collections Discovery Centre. A total of just over £1400 was raised on the night which will go directly towards funding the project

Staff and trustees of Dorset County Museum would like to express their thanks to the following people who made the event such a success: Lord and Lady Fellowes of West Stafford; Peter Mann, Mayor of Dorchester; David Taylor, Museum Fundraising Team Leader; Jan Cosgrove, David Cuckson, Jane Squirrell, Volunteers of the Museum’s Fundraising team; Mark North, Andy Worth, Ian Condon, Jenny Devitt, Film and Media Technicians;  John Fiori from the Horse with the Red Umbrella and Nicci Campbell of the Angel Cake Company for the food and the cake, plus Dorchester Town Crier Alistair Chisholm and members of the New Hardy Players.

Dorchester Thanksgiving Party

Crowds gather in the museum for the Dorchester Thanksgiving Party

During the evening, the two Dorchesters were directly connected by a live video link. Julian Fellowes talked with the Rt Reverend Richard Kellaway and the Rev Arthur Lovoie from the First Parish Church in Dorchester Massachusetts, assisted by  who had been helping to coordinate the event on the American side. A major element in the joint heritage of the two towns is the rectory of the Reverend John White. A listed building, it was here that events took place that played a key role in the founding of the United States of America. Regeneration of this site, in the centre of Dorchester’s urban conservation area, will help promote understanding of Dorset’s international story and provide a definite link for the many tens of thousands of people around the world who can trace their family heritage back to Dorset.

Lord Julian Fellowes

Lord Julian Fellowes of West Stafford

The Museum’s Collections Discovery Centre project has been developed to provide new galleries, learning resources, collections storage facilities and a renewed public face for the Museum. The new centre will enable the museum to showcase its collections, spanning over 185 million years. It will build a safe conservation environment and sustainable future for the heritage the collections represent. This will enable more people to learn about history and prehistory using the Museum’s collections, and create additional collecting capacity for

 Julian Fellowes speaks to First Parish Dorchester - Rev. Arthur R. Lavoie, Phil Lindsay and Rev. Richard Kellaway — with Julian Fellowes at Dorset County Museum.

Lord Julian Fellowes speaks to First Parish Dorchester – Rev. Arthur R. Lavoie, Phil Lindsay and Rev. Richard Kellaway

Dorset’s strategically important collections such as the archaeology of the South Dorset Ridgeway and the geology of the Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site.

In addition, new galleries will encourage more people to visit and experience the collections including groups which do not currently use the Museum and visitors will be able to see, for the first time, objects in reserve collections which are not normally on display. The scheme will also help to improve the cultural tourism offer for Dorset, and support the regional economy. The Museum is in the heart of a rural county, in the centre of the county town, and in an area that attracts visitors from across the UK. In this location, with the right investment, the new centre will provide wonderful access to the region’s heritage and become an essential part of the experience of visiting Dorset.

Further fundraising events are currently being planned to support the project – for more information visit www.dorsetcountymuseum.org or telephone the Museum on 01305 262735.

Related Links:

Dorchester Thanksgiving Party 14th November 2014

Dorchester Thanksgiving PartyDorset County Museum is working hard to raise funds for a major redevelopment project to improve its facilities in Dorchester. An important part of the process is a series of fundraising events linked with increasing the profile of the Museum at home and abroad.

Dorset, and Dorchester in particular, has a strong historical connection with early settlers in the United States, in particular with those who sailed on the ship Mary and John. This was the ship that brought the first European settlers to Dorchester Massachusetts in 1630 under the guidance of the Reverence John White. Part of the Museum’s current project is the renovation and development of John White’s Rectory located behind the Museum in Colliton Street, Dorchester.

Model of the Mary and John

Model of the Mary and John in the Dorset County Museum © DCM

Fundraising Team Leader, David Taylor said, “We are talking to people in America who are researching into how their ancestors originally came to the Massachusetts area. We hope to build on this relationship as our project moves forwards – and help them find out more about who these early settlers were, and why they left England for the New World.”

There will be a small exhibition about the Mary and John on display including original passenger lists. The event will also include a live link with contacts from Dorchester and Boston Massachusetts.

In addition, Lord and Lady Fellowes of West Stafford will introduce a brand new film about Dorset’s heritage. Entertainment will include the performance of a Mummers Play by the New Hardy Players and traditional folk music by Jerry Bird.

Tickets cost £15.00 and include canapés and a glass of wine.

They are available now from the Museum Shop on 01305 756827 or by email on shop@dorsetcountymuseum.org Tickets can also be obtained from the Dorchester Tourist Information Centre, telephone 01305 267992.

Related Links:

Dorset’s Church Treasure: Telling the Story of Christianity through the Centuries

17th Century Chalice from SwanageAn exhibition of Ecclesiastical Silver at Dorset County Museum, Dorchester from 13th October 2014 to 18th April 2015.

In Christian churches, the act of communion has always been the most important religious ceremony. Traditionally congregations wished to have the very best communion vessels that they (or their richest members) could afford. As a result Dorset churches have a wealth of beautiful and rare collections of silver, some of it so valuable that it has to be stored in bank vaults. A new exhibition at Dorset County Museum provides a rare opportunity to see some of the finest pieces in both Dorset and the UK.

The new temporary exhibition in the Museum’s Victorian Gallery tells the story of Christianity for over 2000 years – from Pre-Reformation times to the present day. Crafted by world-famous silversmiths, the pieces include the Coombe Keynes Chalice from the Victoria and Albert Museum in London – an object of huge national importance.

Dorset appears to have had a strong Christian community as far back as Roman times. An example of this tradition is a Roman spoon from Dorchester with the “fish” Christian cipher.

By the early 16th century England was a devoutly Christian country and only the Priest was normally allowed to take full communion. He drank wine from a wide mouth vessel called a chalice and took bread, in the form of an unleavened wafer, from a small plate called a paten. Pieces of church silver from this period in England are rare and in Dorset only three pieces survive. All of these can be seen in the exhibition including the Coombe Keynes Chalice which has been said by the Victoria and Albert Museum to be one of the finest in the country.

Many consider the 18th century as the greatest period for church and domestic silver and Paul de Lamerie is generally accepted as the greatest silversmith of the time; some say of all time. On display is one of the three silver-gilt communion sets made by de Lamerie for Dorset churches. There is also a letter, dated June 1737, which records instructions on how to clean the silver as directed by Paul de Lamerie, himself.

In the mid-1800s a new Anglo Catholic movement wanted to bring more powerful emotional symbolism and energy to the Church. More elaborate church interiors were introduced and the design of communion ware moved to a more mediaeval style. The chalice on show from St Peter’s church Parkstone is a fine example of the richness and ebullience of this style. The chalice is inlaid with semi-precious stones and has a diamond cross on the front, reputed to be from necklace owned by the donor.

“This exhibition contains some of the finest pieces of church silverware in the country,” said Jon Murden, Director of Dorset County Museum. “We are grateful to all the Dorset parishes which have loaned items for us to display. We hope many people will be able to see these hidden treasures before they go back into safe storage.”

In addition to silver chalices, patens and flagons, there are other fascinating items including a very rare bread knife for cutting communion bread. Accompanying the exhibition is a booklet describing Dorset’s ecclesiastical silver and the development of Christianity in Dorset since the 4th century.

The exhibition will be formally opened by the Bishop of Sherborne, Dr. Graham Kings, and will run at Dorset County Museum from 13th October 2014 to 18th April 2015.

The award-winning Museum is open Monday to Saturday, 10.00am to 5.00pm until the end of October when it closes daily at 4.00pm.

For more information please Tel: 01305 262735 or visit our website at www.dorsetcountymuseum.org.

The Altar Frontal from Wool Church

From the ‘Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society’ Volume 55 1934, an article written by the G. DRU DRURY, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., F.S.A entitled ‘The Altar Frontal From Wool Church.’ (Read the 21st day of November, 1933.)

This interesting frontal is made up from portions of mediaeval vestments, which local tradition would have us believe came from the neighbouring Cistercian Abbey of Bindon.

In the year 1886 the Vicar and Churchwardens of the Church of the Holy Rood, Wool, placed it with the Dorset County Museum, and being extremely fragile, it was carefully repaired by Mrs. Stillwell the following year.

The descriptive references by Hutchins and his continuators are scanty and inaccurate ; and the fact that, during the 47 years our museum has sheltered this fine example of mediaeval embroidery, no adequate description has been attempted can only be regarded as a reproach, with the object of removing which this paper has been written.

Several doubtful points were cleared-up by a visit to the Department of Textiles at the Victoria and Albert Museum, with a photograph of the frontal; and I take this opportunity of recording gratefully my indebtedness to Mr. C. E. C. Tattersall for his kindness and courtesy on that occasion.

The most gratifying fact established was that the embroidery is undoubtedly English, though the velvet was probably all imported from Italy.

Most of the work dates from the end of the 15th century; and some of it may even be 16th century, the figures on the second and fourth strips being just about as late as any pre-reformation type.

The  Altar  Frontal from Wool Church

The Altar Frontal from Wool Church © DCM

The frontal is composed of eight approximately equal vertical strips joined together to fit an altar 4ft. 6ins. in length by 3ft. high. These strips differ both in design and material, four being of velvet and four of linen, but in the latter case, not all of the same texture.

The first strip (from the left-hand side) is of blue velvet, the pile of which has nearly all worn off. It is embroidered with coloured silks and gold thread in a design of “fish flowers” and sprays. The name” fish flower” is derived from the fancied resemblance of the central portion to the inverted body and tail of a fish. The rich blue of the velvet still survives in the centres of the two flowers and where it has been protected by the sprays here and there. It is not difficult to imagine this as part of a sumptuously decorated chasuble ; in fact there is in the Victoria and Albert Museum a red chasuble of late 15th century date which is embroidered with practically the same design.

The third, fifth and seventh strips are all from one piece of velvet—probably from a cope—once a rich purple but now faded to a brown colour. The design of “pine flowers” and sprays is finely embroidered in coloured silks, the heads of the flowers being of white linen applique and worked over. Comparison with a cope of purple velvet in the Victoria and Albert Museum which, though still definitely purple, – has faded in places to a colour nearly resembling these strips, confirms this opinion as to their original colour, in spite of the fact that Hut chins mentions brown velvet. Furthermore Mr. Tattersall reminded me that though red, blue, green or purple vestments are frequently mentioned in the inventories of church goods of 1552, brown is unknown.

The  Altar  Frontal from Wool Church © DCMThe second and fourth strips are parts of orphreys made of rather coarse linen embroidered with silks in the designs of figures standing on the ground, beneath architectural canopies, the style of which dates them as late 15th or early 16th century work. Some of the orphreys of English work of this period in the Victoria and Albert Museum exhibit canopies similar to these in general form, in the character of the vaulting beneath the canopy arches, and in the round-headed recesses of the shafts.

It will be noticed that the figures on these two strips face inwards towards each other, doubtless because they formed parts of orphreys from the front of a cope, but not all the panels are complete as to their tops and bases.

Saint Matthias? © DCM

Saint Matthias? © DCM

It is not easy to determine whether these bearded figures represent prophets, apostles or saints, much less to assign them names. None of them have ecclesiastical vestments and with one exception they wear a nondescript kind of “traditional” costume, of forgotten origin after generations of copying; possibly in like manner the very identity of the persons represented may have meant little to the worker who carried on the tradition. The top figure of the second strip carries a spear and wears a large flat-topped hat, his hair and beard are white. The middle figure, who carries a long-handled axe, also has white hair and beard, but appears to have a halo rather than a hat; the upper part of his canopy has been cut off, consequently it is not certain that his position in relation to the

Moses? © DCM

Moses? © DCM

figure above is the original arrangement. The lowest figure with brown beard and small pointed hat might (as has been supposed – Hutchins’s History of Dorset, 3rd Edition, Vol. 1, p. 361.) represent Moses holding the tables of the law in his left hand and a rod in his right.

On the fourth strip the top figure with a long brown beard is dressed as a merchant with a belt and gypcière, his turban hat has a long liripipe which depends below the level of his right knee. The second figure with white hair and beard has a halo and grips a long knife and may perhaps represent St. Bartholomew. The lowest figure has brown hair and beard with ruddy cheeks, he wears a tall pointed “Steeple” hat with a broad turn-up and carries a scroll in his left hand.

St. Cuthburga, Abbess of Wimborne? © DCM

St. Cuthburga, Abbess of Wimborne? © DCM

The sixth strip is also part of; an orphrey, perhaps the central strip of a chasuble. It has been rubbed very bare of its silk embroidery, exposing the linen surface which is of very coarse texture.

Two female saints in veil and wimple are worked upon it; the upper figure bears a church in her hands, the symbol of a foundress ; the lower one holds a cross in both hands and might perhaps represent St. Helen. Their canopies are of an earlier type than those just mentioned.

The eighth strip is again part of an orphrey and is worked on linen of fine texture. The design consists of two male saints, each adorned with a blue halo, standing beneath canopies. The lower figure holds a chalice in his left hand but the object held by the upper figure is not now recognisable though it appears to terminate above in a small round knob. The canopy is only complete in the case of the lower figure, and though this resembles in some respects those on the sixth strip, it is not the same, the pediment has a more stately pitch and the diaper work is better, and a date may be assigned to this earlier in the 15th century than any of the others.

The Altar Frontal from Wool Church © DCMIt would seem, therefore, fairly obvious that the sixth and eighth strips belonged to different vestments, and it is a not incredible supposition that the sixth strip, in so far as its canopy work is concerned, may have been a rather poor copy of the eighth strip.

But there are parts of yet two more vestments incorporated in the frontal. On either side of the second strip a thin edging has been added consisting of green and gold “cut velvet” while between the third and fourth strips there is a similar edging of crimson and gold “cut velvet” Both of these are Italian and of 15th century date.

The fragments, preserved between glass in the small frame, came from the back of the Altar Frontal at the time it was repaired by Mrs. Stillwell.

With the Council’s permission I submitted them to Mr. Tattersall for his opinion, and have since labelled them in accordance with it.

The Altar Frontal from Wool Church © DCMNos. 1 and 2 are pieces of 15th century Italian velvet, doubtless from a cope. The crimson pile, which is woven on at least two warps, is cut to show a design in gold. A fine example of such a cope is to be seen in the Victoria and Albert Museum.

Nos. 3 and 4 are pieces of the green and crimson edging dividing the strips, described above. The green velvet is much rarer than the crimson. It was noticed that several of the vestments in the Victoria and Albert Museum had an edging of this material round the bottom.

Nos. 5, 6 and 7 are pieces of handwoven linen of various texture and colour, used as linings for the frontal.

To summarise briefly, it is definitely established that there are incorporated in the frontal parts of at least three vestments, probably a chasuble and two. copes, and parts of three different sets of orphreys; but whether the orphreys belonged to these particular vestments or were taken from others it is impossible to say.

Now in regard to the traditional connection with Bindon Abbey, what is the evidence?

It must be acknowledged at once that there is no real evidence and, after all, it is hardly likely that there should be; nevertheless where a strong local tradition exists in matters such as these it is unwise to ignore it.

The compilers of the 3rd Edition of Hutchins’s History of Dorset state that “it was probably brought from Bindon Abbey” Hutchins himself, in the 1st Edition, states rather more explicitly “it is most probable it belonged to Bindon Chapel and was preserved when that and the house were burnt in the Civil Wars.”

The house and chapel here referred to were built by Lord Thomas Howard (created 1st Viscount Bindon in 1559) who “raised a fair house” out of the monastery ruins. The actual position of this house and its domestic chapel cannot now be determined with any certainty, but it seems probable that it covered very much the same area as the present house within the Abbey precincts. It was burnt down during the Civil Wars about the year 1644.

A return of Church utensils in 1550 belonging to this Bindon Chapel is quoted by Hutchins, (Hutchins’s History of Dorset, 3rd Edition, Vol. 1, p. 352.) which includes a pair of vestments and an altar cloth. Perhaps this may have been the source of his idea.

In the Inventory of Church goods of 1552 (Proceedings, Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club, Vol. XXV., pp. 210 &211.) the ” Chapell of Byndon ” possessed “one payre of vestments of rede & gryne saye” and “one alter clothe”

In the same Inventory “The parische of Woolle” had ” iiij payre of vestmentes with branchis of silke. ij copis with branches ” ” iiij aulter clothes ” : of which ” one cope and all the table clothes ” were allowed for the church use.

On the face of it the supposition of the late Rev. W. Miles Barnes (Ibid, p. 198.) would seem to be quite likely, viz.:—that these vestments and the remaining cope were eventually made up into altar hangings after purchase from the Commissioners, of which the frontal is all that now survives.

Museum holds fundraising event to celebrate links with Dorchester, Massachusetts

Dorset County Museum is currently working on a major refurbishment and development project to improve its galleries and collections storage facilities and to increase access to the public. Part of the project involves fundraising and increasing the profile of the Museum at home and abroad.

David Taylor points to the coat of arms of the Lawrence Family at St Michael & All Angels, Steeple.

David Taylor points to the coat of arms of the Lawrence Family at St Michael & All Angels, Steeple.

An important part of Dorset’s heritage is its connection with early settlers in the United States. The Museum is keen to establish links with American organisations interested in the history of those who travelled under the guidance of the Revd. John White of Dorchester. The Museum owns John White’s Rectory in Colliton Street which will be restored as part of the project. The Museum has several American members who are keen to promote the project and become involved in establishing stronger links with places like Dorchester in Massachusetts, one of the original landing points of English settlers.

Fundraising Team Leader, David Taylor said, “We have found links from Dorset families to the great-grandfather of George Washington who became the first President of the United States. There are also coats of arms from the Lawrence and Washington families going back to 1390 which show stars and stripes very similar to those used on the American flag.”

Dorchester Thanksgiving PartyThe fundraising event on Friday 14th November will celebrate the Museum’s re-established contact with the United States and will include a live link with dignitaries from Dorchester and Boston Massachusetts. The thanksgiving party will start at 5.30pm with a presentation of a new film about Dorset’s heritage which will be introduced by Lord and Lady Fellowes of West Stafford. Entertainment will include the performance of a Mummers Play by the New Hardy Players and traditional folk music by Jerry Bird.

Tickets cost £15 and include canapés and a glass of wine. They are available now from the Museum Shop on 01305 756827 or by email on shop@dorsetcountymuseum.org. Tickets can also be obtained from the Dorchester Tourist Information Centre, telephone 01305 267992.

Related Links:

 

Museum runs literary fundraising event

Rev. William Barnes © DCM

Rev. William Barnes © DCM

Dorset County Museum will be running a fundraising event on 30th August 2014. The event will take place between 10.00 am and 3.00 pm at St Peter’s Church hall, High West Street, Dorchester. Stalls will include home-made produce and preserves, books and bric-a-brac, a raffle and tombola and children’s clothes and toys. Refreshments will be available and there will be plenty of activities for children.

Between 11.00 am and 12.00 pm Tim Laycock, well-known folk musician, actor and storyteller will be performing Dorset music and songs.

The event will help the Museum update the William Barnes Gallery which is dedicated to Dorset’s greatest dialect poet. Some of the money will also be put towards the purchase of a portrait of Giles Dugdale – an author and previous member of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society which runs the Museum. The portrait, together with a collection of manuscripts, books and cuttings relating to William Barnes, are part of a private family collection and are being sold for £3,000.

Giles Dugdale

Giles Dugdale, Oil on canvas, 1923. Wilfred Gabriel de Glehn RA (1870-1951)

“Giles Dugdale played a key role in bringing the literary genius of William Barnes, Dorset’s greatest dialect poet, to light,” said Jon Murden, Director of Dorset County Museum. “He was also co-founder of the Museum and therefore his portrait is an important part of our Dorset heritage.”

The William Barnes Society has already donated £500 towards the purchase of the portrait. It is hoped that the fundraising event on 30th August will raise the rest of the funds needed to keep the portrait in its rightful place in Dorset County Museum.
For more information about the project, or to make a donation,please contact Jenny Cripps at the Museum on jenny@dorsetcountymuseum.org

For more information please Tel: 01305 262735 or visit our website at www.dorsetcountymuseum.org.

Related Sources:

Saint Wite of Whitechurch Canonicorum

Church of Saint White, or Candida, and Holy Cross,  Whitechurch Canonicorum.

Church of Saint White, or Candida, and Holy Cross, Whitechurch Canonicorum.

From the ‘Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society’ Volume 28, 1907, an article written by the Rev. D. Holland Stubbs entitled ‘Church of Saint White, or Candida, and Holy Cross, Whitechurch Canonicorum: A Descriptive Sketch, compiled from notes made at various times by former vicars’

In the valley of the Char, near the village of Charmouth, about midway between Bridport and Lyme Regis, stands the ancient Whitechurch Canonicorum, founded by King Alfred the Great about a.d. 897. It is a building composed of various styles of architecture, and consists of nave with north and south aisles, transepts, chancel, and western tower.

The first point of interest lies in the names by which it is so honourably known. It would therefore be fitting perhaps to observe what is generally believed to be the origin of the church and its dedication. Upon good authority it is considered to have been built by King Alfred, who united a few townships of which he was presumably the owner — for it is well known that the Kings of Wessex held great estates in all this district — and built a church of stone on this his royal domain. As a rule, churches derive their names from the parishes in which they are built, but in all probability this parish derived its name from the church having been built of white stone, or possibly having been whitewashed*. (*N.B. This theory of the origin of the place-name is simple and in harmony with the well-known instance of “Candida casa ” in Galloway. Vide Article by the Rev. Charles Druitt in the Club’s Proceedings, Vol. XIX., 1898)

In his will, dated a.d. 901, King Alfred bequeathed Hwitan Cyrican to his youngest son Ethelwald. In the next century, about the year 1060, the then Rector of Withchirche, Guntard by name, who was Chaplain to William the Conqueror, “being desirous to retire into the Monastery of S. Wandragesil, prevailed upon the King to grant the two churches (Whitechurch and Sherston) to the monks of that house.” Accordingly the Rectory of Witcerce was given by William to the Benedictine Abbey of S. Wandragesil, now called S. Wandrille (near Caudebec in Normandy), and was constituted a “cell of the abbey” under the name of Album Monasterium. This connexion lasted about a hundred and forty years, during which time the monks began to rebuild King Alfred’s Church on a larger scale.

The Abbey of S. Wandrille surrendered the Rectory of Witcherch to the Church of Old Sarum in 1200. The right of presentation to the Rectory then passed to Sir Robert de Mandivel, a resident knight (whose name survives to this day in Mandivel Stoke), apparently on his undertaking to carry out the unfinished work of the abbots, and this was done in the Early English style in the early part of that century. This accounts for the different shapes of the arches and the admixture of Norman and Early English in the nave arcades. By the addition of transepts the church was now made ‘ cruciform.’ It was on Christmas Day of the year 1240 that a charter was signed by which the Rectory and rectorial revenues were assigned to the Canons of the Cathedrals of Salisbury and Wells, from which time the church became known as Whitechurch of the canons, or, in its latinised form, Canonicorum. Thus we have the earliest name of Hwitan Cyrican about a.d. 900, then in William’s charter to his Rector Guntard, Withchirche, in Domesday, Witcerce, and in later periods (1200) Whytecherche, (1228) Wittecheriche, (1240) Witcherche, or, in its latinised form, Album Monasterium, and then Whitechurch Canonicorum.

The Western Tower

The Western Tower

To make a tour of the church in systematic order it is best to proceed first to the outside of the western tower. This massive and lofty tower, in the Perpendicular style of architecture, is a conspicuous object in the landscape for miles around, and is used as a landmark by vessels at sea when making for the port of Lyme Regis. With its buttresses it is thirty-two feet square and seventy-five feet high. The fine western window with three lights is, so far as the tracery is concerned, more modern, although a copy of the original. On either side of it there are canopied niches well preserved, but from which sacrilegious hands in times of religious strife have torn down the effigies of the saints. The tower contains six bells, with inscriptions respectively as follows : —

Whitechurch-Canoncorum-bellIn the walls of the church are embedded many fragments of carved stone which have been preserved from former buildings probably on the same site. On the south side of the tower, and high up, is an interesting stone carving of an archaic ship and an axe. On a separate panel, and a little higher on the right, will be seen another axe and an ancient weapon resembling an iron socketted celt.

Whitechurch-Canoncorum-AxeOn the north side is a perfect, unweathered specimen of the same curious weapon. The ship has been supposed by some to indicate that the donor of the tower was a merchant who had obtained, by the traffic of his ships, the wealth which enabled him thus to dignify and adorn his parish church, but a more probable explanation will be found later on.

A “spoked circle,” supposed to be an old sun dial, but, more likely, a mystic symbol which had to do with solar myths, will be seen built into the south-east side of the diagonal buttress of the south transept. The most interesting fragment, however, and deserving of a paragraph all to itself, is fixed in the south wall between the tower and the porch.

The Holy Grail

The Holy Grail

It represents a two-handled cup and is supposed to be a figure of the Holy Grail. It is similar in design to the Holy Grail as seen by Bishop Arculph in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem about A.D. 680. The Holy Grail, in mediaeval legend, is the Holy Cup used by Our Lord at the Last Supper, originally the ” San Great,” or Holy Dish, in which it is said Joseph of Arimathaea collected the Sacred Blood. There is a similar representation on a cross at Sancreed in Cornwall, of a one-handled cup, but it more probably refers to the ” pot and lily,” symbolical of the Annunciation and not to the Holy Grail. (Baring-Gould).

South Porch

South Porch

Particular notice should be taken of the south porch with its striking Inner Doorway, which is really a beautiful example of Norman work. The jambs are ornamented with circular shafts, having foliated capitals, and the circular head enriched with nail-head ornaments and pointed roll. On the eastern jamb and on the inner side of it, will be seen four roughly-cut crosses, which are said to be consecration marks. These crosses, it is supposed, were first marked in holy oil by the bishop who re-consecrated the church, or some part of it, possibly after desecration by bloodshed, and were then chiselled in their present form to commemorate the event. Of special antiquarian and ecclesiastical interest also is the old sacring-bell-hut over the west gable of the chancel. In this hung the bell that was rung at the consecration prayer in the Latin Mass before the Reformation. Nearly all over the country these sacring-bells and their huts were destroyed in Puritan times.

Projecting from the four corners of the porch are grotesquely-cut figures called gargoyles, evidently of earlier date than the part into which they were built. Others may be seen on the north side of the church, and the upper portion of the tower. On the north side also may be observed traces of a foundation which may be a remnant of the old Saxon portion of the fabric.

Whitechurch-Canoncorum-InteThe Interior of the Church. — In the severely plain, yet most dignified interior, there is much more of interest than at first meets the eye of the casual observer, and much that is of great value to the student of ancient architecture. Attention is at once drawn to two arches of the south aisle, which are Norman. They date from the time of the re-building by the monks of the Benedictine Abbey of S. Wandrille. These foreign owners began to re-place the earlier church with a larger structure in the then prevalent style of architecture.

The Font

The Font

The bowl of the font is Transition Norman work. It was discovered by a former vicar, the Rev. Sir William Palmer, in a field belonging to Berne Farm, and was erected by him on a base in character with the ancient piece of work.

On the east wall of the south transept there is a painted board with tablet to the memory of Elizabeth Floyer, dated 1666, and a hatchment above showing the arms of Floyer impaling Mainwaring. The following quaint inscription sets forth the virtues of the good lady : —

Æsuœ 42.

Come, gentle reader, to bestow a teare,
Upon her sacred dust doe not forbeare,
Shee was a vertuous wife, a tender mother,
A neighbour kind, theres scarse left such another,
Though shee bee dead her memory will find
A name in her faire issue left behind
And in her pious life, which here below
With us, shee was too good to stay we know,
Who on her death bead thanked god most high
S’was not asham’d to live, nor feard to dye.

The vestry door should receive special attention, as it is considered a good example of mediaeval architecture. Originally there was a rood screen or loft across the chancel arch, the remains of the entrance to which may still be seen in the wall above.

The chancel is a very large one for a country church. It is simply, but effectively, furnished and adorned with oak stalls, the panelling being known as the ‘ linen pattern.’ The altar is well raised, and the whole appearance of the sanctuary from the west end is of an elevating and devotional character. The east window is bold and impressive, but not old. It was placed there by the Rev. Sir William Palmer, a former vicar, 1846- 1885. The altar rail is of the same date as the pulpit. One of the most striking features is the highly-decorated tomb of Sir John Jeffery, of Catherstone, with a recumbent figure of the knight, whose casque hangs overhead. Hard by is the smaller and less sumptuous tomb of John Wadham, of Catherstone, a kinsman of the founder of Wadham College, Oxford. There are remains of stones with matrices of missing brasses in the floor of the sanctuary. The old registers indicate that in this Church lie (in a nameless grave) the remains of a gallant sailor, Sir George Somers, born at Lyme Regis in 1554, the famous admiral who annexed the Bermudas in the reign of James I. No stone now marks the site, but a movement is on foot for erecting a tablet or brass to his memory.

The fine carved pulpit, which is Jacobean in style, was placed here in the time of James I. It serves to mark an epoch in the history of the church. Simiiarly-carved pulpits exist at Netherbury, Lyme Regis, and at Wootton Fitzpayne.

The north transept bears the date of 11 28 on a small wooden cross built into the upper portion of the east wall. It was intended to include the shrine of S. White or Candida, around which such interest gathers. Here too stood, formerly, two altars, one under each window, lighted by two small lancets. Very good specimens of foliated capitals to the arcade are deserving of special notice, particularly that representing a leaf of the water avens, or herb bennet. The north wall, it is probable, was originally of the same design as the bays of the east wall, with a lancet window, replaced later by the three-light window.

St. Wite's ShrineBeneath this window is the recessed tomb which is the reputed resting place of S. Wita, or Candida, and locally known as ” the saint’s shrine.” The monument consists of two parts. the lower, of a 13th century base brought from some other place, and rebuilt in its present position to bear the upper part, which is of older date. The three oval openings beneath the tomb are a common feature of such monuments. In these openings, handkerchiefs and other small articles were placed, in the belief that they would become possessed of healing virtues, and could then be carried to recover the sick. This coffin was opened by the Rev. Sir William Palmer, and was said to contain a small stone box in which were a few bones, but no documentary evidence remains of his act, nor any record of what he found there. On the top stands a small stone cross much decayed, which formed the finial of the east gable of the chancel. It was placed here for its preservation by the Rev. J. R. W. Stafford, a former vicar, in 1890. A second opportunity for examining the contents of the tomb presented itself, for in March, 1900, an ominous fissure appeared in the north wall, and it was necessary to underpin the walls, which was done by the then Vicar, the Rev. Charles Druitt. The movement of the soil and consequent settlement dislocated the old shrine, re-opening an ancient fracture in the stone coffin to such an extent that it became necessary to reset the broken end. It was during the execution of this work that the re-discovery of the relics was made.* (* N.B. Vide the Eev. Charles Druitt’s paper, ” Discovery of the Kelics of S. Wita,” in the Salisbury Diocesan Gazette for Sept., 1900.)

The broken end of the coffin having been withdrawn, there was seen within the end of a leaden casket eight inches square ; and on it, cast in raised letters on the lead, was found the following inscription : —

Whitechurch Canoncorum

This proved to be the square end of an oblong, ancient, leaden reliquary of 2ft. 5ms. It was badly damaged, having been ripped open from end to end. The incrustation of oxide on the torn edges seemed to show that the damage was not recent ; apparently it had been done some centuries before. In the reliquary were a number of large bones, a good deal decayed, presumably those of a small woman. These were not disturbed in their resting place, but one of the bones which lay upper most, was measured and found to be 13⅞ins. long. The larger fragments found on the floor of the coffin were placed with the bones in the reliquary, and all the smaller fragments and dust reverently collected into a small metal box and placed within the coffin. One side of the reliquary was complete and undamaged, and on it was found cast in similar raised letters on the lead the following inscription: —St.-Wite-Inscription

(Here lie the remains of Saint Wita.)

The whole of the relics were carefully replaced in the stone coffin, the broken end being securely cemented in its place. Formerly, it is said, there was a painted inscription on the stone front of the tomb, but the only words decipherable were:
Candida…….. Candidiorque ……..

Now the great question of interest is: Who is this S. Wita, or Candida? Certain theories have been propounded from time to time, to account for her origin and the presence of her bones at Whitechurch, but none of these can so far be proved to be more than conjecture. By some it has been thought that she was a virgin-martyr saint who suffered death under Maximian at Carthage, but it would be difficult to explain what she could possibly have had to do with a Dorset village. Some think that the abbots of S. Wandrille, perceiving a desirable connexion with a saint in the Roman calendar of the name of Candida, or White and Whitechurch, had her bones conveyed here. Others, again, that it is possible that a male saint of the name of White, or S. Candidus as he might be called, who suffered martyrdom near Utrecht in A.D. 755, is intended, as he was believed to be a native of western Dorset. But the best and most probable explanation of the mystery is that recently advanced by the Rev. S. Baring-Gould, who is a recognised authority on such subjects. He has kindly written the following notes expressly for this paper :

“Who was S. Candida, or S. White? No legend exists of her in England, but she has received recognition in Brittany under the Celtic name of Gwen, the Latin name of Candida, and the French name of Blanche, all of which have their equivalent in the English name of White. We can only conjecture as to her identity. Of Gwen we know a good deal. She was twice married. By her first husband she became the mother of S. Cadfan, the founder of Tywyn Church in Merionethshire, where his stone with inscription still remains. She was the daughter of Emyr Llydaw, a prince of Brittany, and her first husband was Eneas Lldewig. On his death she married Fragan, cousin of Cado, Duke of Cornwall. For some unknown reason, Fragan resolved on leaving Britain and crossing over to Brittany, in the latter part of the fifth century, and took with him his wife Gwen ‘ of the three breasts,’ and his two sons with her, Gwenthenoc and James, and he settled near where is now the city of S. Brieuc, at a place still called Ploufragan, or the Plebs or tribal residence of Fragan.

“Shortly after their arrival in Brittany, Gwen gave birth to another son who was named Winwaloe, a notable saint, who died in the year 550. Gwen received the name of ‘the three breasted’ from an expression in use among the Welsh and Irish, descriptive of a woman who was twice married and who had children by both husbands. At Ploufragan there is a modern statue of her as a queen, but at Scaer is her holy well, yielding an abundant outflow of crystal water, and there she is called Candida.

“What little that is reliable concerning her we know from the life of her son S. Winwaloe, but legend has been busy with her name and story, and Sebillot, in his collection of folk tales collected in Brittany, tells some of the traditional stories connected with her. According to them the connection with England is still present, but she is fabled to have been carried off by English pirates to London, but she escaped from the ship with the loss of two fingers cut off by an axe by one of the pirates — according to another version, the loss of her left hand — and to have walked on the water back to Brittany. There the track of foam left by the tide as it turns is still called ‘ the track of S. Blanche.’

Le Chemin de Saint Blanche.

Le Chemin de Saint Blanche.

“She must at one time have had a considerable cult in Brittany, as not only are there churches dedicated to her where she had her settlement of retainers, as at Plouguin and Pleguen, but there is also a parish of S. Gwen, and she is likewise venerated at S. Cast,

“In A.D. 919 – 921 there was a great influx of Bretons flying their country under their chief Matuedoi who came to England, as the Chronicle of Nantes says, ‘ with a great number of Britons,’ and they brought with them the bodies of their saints. By this means a large number of the relics of old Welsh and Breton saints arrived in England. Athelstan, although not yet King, received the refugees kindly and planted them, there is reason to believe, in Cornwall and Wessex, of which Dorset was a part. At Wareham, in Dorset, have been found inscribed stones that belong to these settlers. Athelstan placed the relics in various churches, and it is quite conceivable that he gave those of Gwen, or Candida, to Whitechurch which his grandfather had founded.

“Now it is remarkable that nowhere in Brittany is it held that her relics were preserved; consequently it is not at all improbable that when the migration took place to England, the refugees carried with them the bones of the mother of some of their greatest saints, S. Cadfan, S. Winwaloe, S. Gwenthenoc, and S. James. It is possible that they conveyed those of Gwen, the ‘three-breasted,’ to England, and that Athelstan gave them to Whitechurch, partly influenced by the name it bore. If that be the case, then Whitechurch may congratulate itself in possessing the remains of a notable mother of saints. Her son, S. Winwaloe had^ and has still, churches dedicated to him in Cornwall, Gunwalloe, Tresmere, etc., and in Devon, that of Portsmouth.

“There are several Candidas in Martyrologies, but none of these can be the S. Candida of Whitechurch. S. Candida, the martyr of Carthage, was a virgin, but both the history of Gwen and the legend of S. Blanche represent her as a married woman,
and do not admit of her having been a martyr. It is possible enough that the emblems of a ship, a ‘Celt,’ and an axe represented on the tower of Whitechurch may have reference to her legend, the axe that cut off her fingers, the ship in which she crossed the sea, and the ‘Celt’ to symbolise the pirates.”

In the church walk which runs along the outside of the church grounds there are many ancient stones built into the wall which at one time formed part of the historic building. There are also many other stones on which are carved texts of Scripture, the gifts of various bishops and other dignitaries of the Church.

Fordington St. George by H. J. Moule

Tympanum of Door at Fordington Church, Dorchester

Tympanum of Door at Fordington Church, Dorchester

From the ‘Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society’ Volume 5, 1844, an article written by the Henry. Joseph. Moule, M.A.  entitled ‘Fordington St. George’

As it is a short paper that has been asked for, and a paper not so much on the church, as on a -particular feature of the church of Fordington St. George, general remarks shall be as brief as may be.

The site of the church was well chosen. It stands on the highest spot in the village. Yet the site was oddly chosen too. The church was set down in a great Romano-British Cemetery. The growth of a graveyard round a church is, of course, universal almost, and natural. The erection of a newly founded church in an old graveyard is uncommon, I take it.

On approaching the church you pass three good, plain, massive, 17th century altar-like tombs; one of them bearing the well known solemn epitaph, beginning
“Remember that Death tarrieth not.” (Remember that Death tarryeth not, and that the Covenant of the grave is not showed unto thee. For I was as thou art, and thou shalt be as I am.)

The Tower is worth notice, not only as being a capital one in design, colour and position, but as having what, as far as I know, is a peculiarity of plan. Its north and south faces are each 1ft. 4in. narrower than those on the east and west. Of its six bells the third and fifth are mediaeval, Legends: –

“Sancta Katarina ora pro nobis;” and “In multis annis resones campan Johannis.”

These bells are said to be those, or some of those, referred to in the doggerel couplet still current in Wool and elsewhere:-

“Wool streams and Combe wells –
Fordington rogues stole Bindon bells.”

The cage is probably the original one.

Readers of the third edition of Hutchins may be led to think that my honoured father, the late Vicar, was answerable for the dreadful design of the north aisle. I take this opportunity of denying it. A then leading architect in the Diocese recommended the design, which doubtless is worse than any journeyman mason in the county could now be guilty of. On the other hand my father first reduced and then removed the western gallery, which he found actually so high that there were hat pegs on the crown of the tower arch. And he revealed to sight several curious bits in the Church.

Well, this North Aisle exists. The eighteenth century Chancel exists, in place of a glorious one with timber roof, and stalls, and roodloft. The Nave and Transept are ceiled. The interior is spoilt as a whole. Still it possesses several interesting detached features. I can but simply name the plain stone Elizabethan pulpit, the rood loft staircase, the curious little window high up in the Transept, and the piece of encaustic pavement in situ, but with the patterns quite gone. In my boyhood, by the way, these patterns were still so far remaining that I managed to make them out and depict them. Close to this pavement are laid down a number of tiles which were found under pews. Several of these tiles are of some interest. Not a few of them have the fylfot cross.

Besides the above bits there is an interesting remnant of a piscina and arch in the Transept, and two (perhaps three) Norman piers, one with a cap of apparently later date; and carrying singularly rude pointed arches.

I now come to the two really noteworthy features in St. George’s, both .at the South door, and both preserved from an older church, and enshrined by the 15th century builders in their own work, more suo. Indeed it may be noted that here they seem to have been so disposed to an even uncommon degree. This appears from their retaining the Norman piers, although fitting in very awkwardly.

The first of the said features is the Holy Water Stoup. Its font-like shape is remarkable, but by no means unique. There is a much later one, for instance, at Hastings. But, as far as my limited knowledge goes, the moveable, or moveable-looking arrangement of this one at St. George’s is peculiar. It was hidden behind a high pew and forgotten until uncovered by my father ‘some thirty-five years ago. The slight moulding and ornament on it are perhaps hardly enough to settle its date. But I take it to be Norman. Piscinae of that date, and with something of a family likeness exist, I believe, in several places; at Bosharn among others. But these, it seems, resemble short, fixed columns, with the cap hollowed; and are not, as this Stoup is, like a minute font.

It is claimed that St. George miraclous apperance lead crusaders into battle in the Holy Lands, is recorded in the stone tympanum over the south door of St. George's Church at Fordington near Dorchester. This still exists, and is often thought to be one of the earliest images to depict the saint.

It is claimed that St. George miraclous apperance lead crusaders into battle in the Holy Lands, is recorded in the stone tympanum over the south door of St. George’s Church at Fordington near Dorchester. This still exists, and is often thought to be one of the earliest images to depict the saint.

I must now pass on to the Tympanum, close to the Stoup, but outside of instead of within the South door. A Tympanum within the South door of Tarrant Eushton Church may be noticed in passing. It is like this one in date, and to a certain extent in shape, but quite different in subject, and also in construction, as far as I can judge from the rough cut in Hutchins.

I may as well at once express my belief, for what it is worth, that this Fordington Tympanum is undoubtedly Norman. I do not forget that at the meeting of the Archaeological Association in 1871, an opinion that it is much more recent was very decidedly expressed. It was said that the hardness of the stone accounts for the character of the carving. I doubt the fact, and deny the inference. As to the stone, there is a theory that it is of foreign, even of oriental origin. I can find no foundation for this idea. It is a more prevailing, and much more likely belief, that it is of Portesham Oölite. At the same time there is a tradition at Sutton Pointz that of stone from the now grass-grown quarries on Loddun, a hill there, all the “Wold arnshunt builduns to Darchester “ were constructed. “There,” said my informant, ”Portland line – he weren’t finished – not then.” But, whether from. Portesham or Loddun, I think I shall be borne out in believing that oölite from those places, as from Portland, is not when first quarried of by any means stubborn quality. But if it were as hard as basalt, what then? Would the iron hardness of the stone have made the post-Norman carver plainly, if rudely, portray the Norman nasal, the Norman hauberk, the Norman shield, the Norman prick-spur? For in truth this carving might be the petrifaction of some lost bit of the Bayeux Tapestry. Every feature, almost, in the Tympanum may be clearly traced in the tapestry. Almost, for from my remembrance of the latter, and examination of the imperfect set of the facsimiles thereof to which alone I have access here, I cannot satisfy myself that the strapping of the shield to the neck, so conspicuous in the Tympanum (lubke’s “Ecclesiastical Art,” p. 2420,  shown in the tapestry. The object below the horseman’s foot I have always thought to be the end of his sword hanging, of course, on the near side of the horse. I think so still; yet in the Tapestry I see a different object so hanging, and which may be a large dagger or a long end of the girth. This, whether dagger or girth, may be the thing of which the Norman carver here was thinking – just possibly.

As to the subject, I have no new theory to offer. Abroad – and the Anglo-Norman was in much harmony of thought with the Franco-Norman, with the Frenchman, and with the German – abroad, the Tympanum mostly displays some figure or symbol of Our Lord, as by the way we see on the Tarrant example. But here at Fordington it is not Our Lord who is figured or symbolized. His cross, indeed, is fully shown, but not Himself. Yet, the horseman, though not divine, is sainted. His aureole, however faint and rude, is plain enough. Now this is St. George’s Church. About two years before one of the dates assigned for its founding St. George was beheld (men said) charging the Paynim. I see no better likelihood than the old accepted one that this rider is St. George in the onslaught at Antioch. It may be objected that the enemy are in Norman harness. This is nothing. Everyone knows that variation of costume, &o., owing to either differing time or clime, was constantly ignored in mediaeval, nay, down to modern times. Many here must have seen the immortal coloured print of the Prodigal Son going away from home in a post chaise.

I have called this rudely carvel door-head a Tympanum. The books call it so. It is well. But I would in one word point out that it is a widely different feature from the normal Tympanum; and is uncommon – I had almost said unique. The regular Tympanum, of constant occurrence, especially abroad, is a massive lintel stone, fitting into the soffit of an arch above it. With the soffit it is, in truth, like half of a tambourine, τύμπαυου. This Tympanum here is not a stone – it is six stones. It is not a lintel – it is an arch, however rude.

I conclude by pointing out that there are faint traces of red paint on the stone, and recording that the whole was hidden in plaster and unknown until discovered by Clerk Brooks, whom I well remember.