Exploring museums worldwide with #MuseumWeek 2017

#MuseumWeekDorset County Museum will join museums and galleries across the World on Twitter for #MuseumWeek, a project that will connect people to artwork, culture, history and science in new and interactive ways.

#MuseumWeek 2017 will take place from Monday 19th  – Sunday 25th June 2017 and will give Twitter users direct and unparalleled access to some of the international leading museums and the people behind them in 140-characters bursts.

Last year, audiences have been able to engage with a massive, wide and versatile cultural production: in one week, 664.000 tweets were seen more than 294 million times!

@DorsetMuseum

Follow us @DorsetMuseum

Dorset County Museum will join other UK organisations already signed up include the Science Museum (@sciencemuseum), the Natural History Museum (@NHM_London), the Victoria and Albert Museum (@V_and_A), the British Museum (@britishmuseum), and the Tate (@Tate).

Dorset County Museum will join other Museums across the world by including the hashtag #MuseumWeek in their Tweets for the week, meaning users can follow along on Twitter.

 

7 days, 7 themes, 7 hashtags!

In addition, every day there will be a different theme.

A tribute to women

#MuseumWeek

#MuseumWeek is committed to the cause of gender equality, so they have decided to dedicate 2017 to all women in the World. Thus, on top of the regular daily hashtags mentioned here below, we would really love to see some of your publications around the “Women and Culture” theme with #WomenMW, whenever you can during the week. Contents related to this theme will have more chances to be republished on our official channels!

#FoodMW – Monday 19 June

Who doesn’t love visiting Museum cafés? After a visit there’s nothing better than sitting back and taking it all in with a coffee, but what food related art or exhibits actually in the museum is there anything you particularly love? Or is that café chocolate cake just a work of art in itself! Share today with #FoodMW!

#SportsMW – Tuesday 20 June

Sometimes it feels like we have to be an Olympic hurdler just to get over the daily obstacles put in our way, but what about the sports related items in our collections? Do you have something iconic, important locally or just plain odd that relates to sports? Share today with #SportsMW

#MusicMW – Wednesday 21 June

Did you know 21st June is officially #MusicDay2017! What music or song reminds you of an item in your collection? Do you have items relating to a famous musician or instruments on show or in storage that could be revealed? Share with #MusicMW today!

 #StoriesMW – Thursday 22 June

Who doesn’t love a story? Share stories about your institution, collections, pieces of Art or any objects! Or do you have something related to fairy tales or a famous story that’s been told….or still to tell? Remember that visitors also have stories to share too, involve them as much as possible! Share with #StoriesMW

#BooksMW – Friday 23 June

“A room without books is like a body without a soul.” – What books do you have in your collection? Why are they important or interesting? What books have inspired items in your collection? Is there something once owned by an author? Do you have books in your Museum shop? What’s the best seller? #BooksMW! Pssst, don’t forget the Bookselfies and bookshelfies!

#TravelsMW – Saturday 24 June

Many museums and collections were formed as a result of travels, what items in your collection have arrived at the museum from someone travelling? What about how travelling has changed? From early sea vessels to the first bicycles, share these collections today with #TravelsMW

#HeritageMW – Sunday 25 June

Celebrating and preserving heritage is our work of every day. What do you do for helping your audience to increase access to and to sustain heritage collections? Do you also have valuable collections in storage or online? In all its forms, heritage crystallizes our past and stimulates creativity; they are linked to culture and environment of our families, communities and nations. That is why we should protect them and pass them to the future generations. Celebrate them today with #HeritageMW.

@PliosaurKevan

Follow our #MuseumMascot @PliosaurKevan

A full list of participating UK organisations can be viewed here museum-week.org

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Geology Revealed: The Late Triassic Mass Extinction Event and its Aftermath by Prof Richard Twitchett

Ichthyosaur fossil discovered at Lyme Regis © Dorset County Museum 2017

Ichthyosaur fossil discovered at Lyme Regis © Dorset County Museum 2017

One of the major mass extinction events of all time took place about 200 million years ago, triggered by volcanic activity associated with the birth of the Atlantic Ocean.  Elevated carbon dioxide levels at the time, led to global warming and associated environmental changes, some of which are similar to those we are currently experiencing. 

Southwest England contains some of the best locations to study the impacts of this extinction on marine ecosystems and this talk will outline some of the major advances that have been made recently.

Professor Richard Twitchett is a palaeontologist who has been researching the effects of Earth’s major mass extinction events for over 20 years.  Since 2014 he has been a Research Leader in environmental change at the Natural History Museum, London.  After graduating from the University of Bristol he completed his PhD at Leeds, and has undertaken research in the Americas, Asia, Europe & Australia, including fellowships at the University of Tokyo & the University of Southern California.

The forthcoming lecture will take place on Wednesday 8 March in the Dorset County Museum’s Victorian Hall and is FREE to the public; however a donation of £3 encouraged to cover costs. Doors open at 6.30pm and talks start at 7.00pm.

For further information contact the Museum on on 01305 756827 or check the website on www.dorsetcountymuseum.org or follow us on Facebook and Twitter

Nautilus Exhibition at the Dorset County Museum extended to 30 May 2017

Nautilus: Beautiful Survivor - 500 million years of evolutionary

Book: Nautilus: Beautiful Survivor – 500 million years of evolutionary by Wolfgang Grulke

Dorset County Museum’s spotlight exhibition ‘Nautilus: Beautiful Survivor – 500 million years of evolutionary history’ based on the book by Wolfgang Grulke has been extended until the end of May this year to enable even more people to come and enjoy it.

This exhibition showing many of the cultural objects, fossils, shells and artefacts featured in the book, celebrates the long history of Nautilus, its role in human culture and the realities of its life today.

Wolfgang Grulke and his collection of Ammonites

Wolfgang Grulke

Wolfgang said “The Chambered Nautilus is one of the oldest living things on our planet. Since the dawn of civilisation its form has inspired artists, designers and architects. Nautilus has survived whatever the world has thrown at it for more than 500 million years, persisting even as dinosaurs and many other life forms vanished. Now, however, some believe it could become extinct within a generation.  We are donating 100% of the proceeds of this book to Nautilus research and we hope that one of the projects will help find this rarest of animals and film it for the first time.”

For further information contact the Museum on on 01305 756827 or check the website on www.dorsetcountymuseum.org or follow us on Facebook and Twitter

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New exhibition explores one of nature’s beautiful survivors the Nautilus

Nautilus: Beautiful Survivor - 500 million years of evolutionaryFrom 1st to 31st October 2016, Dorset County Museum will be hosting an exhibition ‘Nautilus: Beautiful Survivor – 500 million years of evolutionary history’ based on the forthcoming booking book by Wolfgang Grulke.

Wolfgang Grulke is an author and business man with an unbridled passion for the natural world.  He is regarded as one of the world’s top futurists, speakers and writers of the on this subject. Recently he has also applied his sense of wonder to the distant past, especially our fossil history.

He has created a renowned collection which is featured in his two natural history books Heteromorph: Nature as it’s most bizarre which was published last year and Nautilus: Beautiful Survivor – 500 million years of evolutionary history’ which will be launched on ‘World Nautilus Day’ on the 9th October 2016.

Wolfgang Grulke and his collection of Ammonites

Wolfgang Grulke and his collection of Ammonites

This exhibition showing many of the cultural objects, fossils, shells and artefacts featured in the book, celebrates the long history of Nautilus, its role in human culture and the realities of its life today.

Wolfgang said “The Chambered Nautilus is one of the oldest living things on our planet. Since the dawn of civilisation its form has inspired artists, designers and architects. Nautilus has survived whatever the world has thrown at it for more than 500 million years, persisting even as dinosaurs and many other life forms vanished. Now, however, some believe it could become extinct within a generation.”

Nautilus: Beautiful Survivor - 500 million years of evolutionary

Nautilus: Beautiful Survivor – 500 million years of evolutionary

He continues to say “Despite it having become one of the most-studied invertebrates of all time, there is still an air of mystery that surrounds the living Nautilus. The most-recently evolved specimens have been grouped into the genus Allonautilus. One of these Allonautilus scrobiculatus, the furry or fuzzy Nautilus, has only been seen alive twice in the last 30 years. A second species, Allonautilus perforatus, has never been seen alive. We are donating 100% of the proceeds of this book to Nautilus research and we hope that one of the projects will help find this rarest of animals and film it for the first time.”

This spotlight exhibition and book will feature in a talk by Wolfgang Grulke held at the Dorset County Museum on Wednesday 12 October 2016 from 7.30pm (doors open at 7pm) Thursday 15. The talk is FREE although a donation of £3 is encouraged to cover costs.  The book ‘Nautilus: Beautiful Survivor – 500 million years of evolutionary history’ by Wolfgang Grulke will also be available to purchase and for signing on the night.

For further information contact the Museum on on 01305 756827 or check the website on www.dorsetcountymuseum.org or follow us on Facebook and Twitter

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Geology Revealed: Science and Imagination, Getting Intimate with Deep Time with Sam Scriven

Fossils of the jurassic Coast by Sam Scriven

Fossils of the jurassic Coast by Sam Scriven

Come and join us this Wednesday evening for an interesting talk by Sam Scriven, Earth Science Manager, Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. 

Since joining the Jurassic Coast Team, Sam has been keen to get people involved with the World Heritage Site, and in particular the way in which our geological heritage is communicated.  Copies of his book, ‘Fossils of the Jurassic Coast’ will be available to buy.

Wednesday 14th September 2016 at 7.00pm (The Museum doors open at 6.30pm). The talk is FREE although a donation of £3 is encouraged to cover costs.

For further information contact the Museum on on 01305 756827 or check the website on www.dorsetcountymuseum.org or follow us on Facebook and Twitter

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Exploring museums worldwide with #MuseumWeek 2016

#MuseumWeekDorset County Museum will join museums and galleries across the World on Twitter for #MuseumWeek, a project that will connect people to artwork, culture, history and science in new and interactive ways.

#MuseumWeek 2016 will take place from Monday 28th March – Sunday 30rd April 2016 and will give Twitter users direct and unparalleled access to some of the international leading museums and the people behind them in 140-characters bursts.

@DorsetMuseum

Follow us @DorsetMuseum

Dorset County Museum will join other UK organisations already signed up include the Science Museum (@sciencemuseum), the Natural History Museum (@NHM_London), the Victoria and Albert Museum (@V_and_A), the British Museum (@britishmuseum), and the Tate (@Tate).

Dorset County Museum will join other Museums across the world by including the hashtag #MuseumWeek in their Tweets for the week, meaning users can follow along on Twitter.

 

7 days, 7 themes, 7 hashtags!

In addition, every day there will be a different theme.

#MuseumWeek Secrets#secretsMW – Monday 28 March

Monday is dedicated to discovering your most well-kept secrets! Show a behind-the-scenes glimpse of your museum!

#peopleMW#peopleMW – Tuesday 29 March

Tuesday is dedicated to honor the people-well known or anonymous-who have helped make your museum. Feature your founders, other icons, and current staff members and talk about their expertise!

#architectureMW#architectureMW – Wednesday 30 March

Wednesday is about telling the story of your building(s), your garden(s), your neighborhood or other key locations for your institution. Introduce your museum from a different point of view!

#heritageMW#heritageMW – Thursday 31 March

On Thursday, focus on your tangible and intangible cultural heritage. Help your audience discover the variety of content your institution has on view, in storage or online!

#futureMW#futureMW – Friday 1 April

On friday, share your most innovative projects, your barriers to innovation, your research or your institutional goals, all of which can lead to a greater understanding of your future initiatives and developments!

#zoomMW#zoomMW – Saturday 2 April

Saturday zoom in on your content by sharing details and anecdotes that provide an interesting insight into your collection (e.g, images of hands or frames, anecdotes about the origins of a book …).

#loveMW#loveMW – Sunday 3 April

Sunday, time to share what you love about your place! Take advantage of this opportunity to promote your museum’s greatest attractions (artworks, displays, rooms …) and use Twitter as a helping tool for the visit.

@PliosaurKevan

Follow our #MuseumMascot @PliosaurKevan

A full list of participating UK organisations can be viewed here museumweek2016.org

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IGNITE! Christmas Geology Event at Museum

Ignite Christmas Geology Event at Dorset County MuseumOn Wednesday 9th December, the Museum is hosting ‘Ignite’, an evening of short geology talks by local geologists. Come and join us and enjoy a free glass of warm mulled wine or mulled apple juice and a secret recipe mince pie!

The talks will be:

  • Doreen Smith, ‘Geology of a Railway’
  • John Whicher, ‘New Insights on Sherborne Building Stone’
  • Dr. Trelevan Haysom, ‘Trev’s Shed’ – a tale of curiosities and a chance to guess the identity of some unusual objects from a Purbeck quarry.

This is a lovely opportunity to have a chat and refreshments with the speakers, and newcomers will be more than welcome. The talk starts at 7.00pm (doors open at 6.30pm) and is FREE of charge, although a donation of £3 is encouraged to cover costs.

For further information and other forthcoming events contact the Museum on on 01305 756827 or check the website on www.dorsetcountymuseum.org or follow us on Facebook and Twitter

Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society Vol 136 – 2015

Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society Volume 136 - 2015Remarkable archaeological finds, controversy over the latest film version of Far from the Madding Crowd and ‘the world’s biggest bite’ marine reptile exhibit are revealed in the new style annual just published by the Dorset County Museum.

Read about the pliosaur, the Museum’s latest marine reptile fossil exhibit, a fearsome creature which had the largest bite in the world. Experts discuss new film version of Thomas Hardy’s Far from the Madding Crowd. Finds from the excavations at the Durotriges village excavations at Winterbourne Kingston and the major Roman villa excavation at Druce farm are detailed. Plus over twenty other major articles.

“We are really excited about the latest volume which looks great and has lots of fascinating articles,” says Dr Paul Lashmar, the journal’s editor. “These are scholarly papers but we pride ourselves that they are very readable so there is something in every edition to delight the casual reader or visitor to Dorset.”

Weymouth Bay Pliosaur Skull © DCM

Weymouth Bay Pliosaur Skull © DCM

The new volume features original line drawings on the cover that were used to illustrate the Cornhill Magazine serialisation of Hardy’s Far from the Madding Crowd in 1874.

“With its classic yet unique British countryside and a long and enthralling history Dorset is a remarkable county. Home too many great writers and artists Dorset can also boast the best prehistoric landscape in Britain and the geological wonders of the Jurassic Coast. The annual, the Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeology Society 2015 celebrates everything that is fascinating and important about Dorset.in the last year,” says Dr Lashmar.

Druce Farm Roman Villa

Druce Farm Roman Villa

While Dorset inspires many books, papers and articles, only Proceedings publishes with regard to academic scholarship. From its home at the Dorset County Museum Proceedings has published for 136 years a remarkable annual collection of scholarly papers, monographs and reports from a wide range of disciplines in the furtherance of knowledge and understanding.

CONTENTS:

PAPERS

  • What Tess meant to Hardy, and why Keith Wilson
  • Far from the Madding Crowd (2015) Directed By Thomas Vinterberg. A review Paul J. Niemeyer
  • How to get a head in Dorset County Museum: The tailless tale of Pliosaurus kevani Jenny Cripps
  • The environmental quality of the Sherford River (Dorset) assessed with macroinvertebrate data – Patrick D. Armitage, J.A.B. Bass & Adrianna Hawczak
  • Underwater light-trapping of mobile invertebrates in the Fleet lagoon, Dorset – Nina Wills, J. A. B. Bass & J. I. Jones
  • ‘Gone for a Burton’: Thomas Arthur Burton (1842-1936), musician & composer, and his family (from Leicestershire, Derbyshire, Cotswolds, Hampshire & Dorset) – Hugh S. Torrens
  • Mrs Alicia Moore, dedicatee of Henry Rowland Brown’s 1859 guidebook Beauties of Lyme Regis – Michael A. Taylor
  • A token found at Lyme Regis, Dorset, England, apparently associated with Mary Anning (1799–1847), fossil collector – Michael A. Taylor & Richard Bull
  • The Dorset Hundreds from the early nineteenth century – J. W. Hart

ARCHAEOLOGY

  • Dorset Archaeology in 2014
  • Portable Antiquities Scheme 2014 – Ciorstaidh Hayward Trevarthen
  • Preston: Bowleaze Cove Romano-British building – Iain Hewitt And Grace Jones
  • Observations at Church Street, Christchurch – Michael Heaton with a contribution from Professor Malcolm Thurlby
  • Interim Report: Druce Farm Roman villa, Puddletown – Lilian Ladle And Andrew Morgan
  • Excavation of a Romano-British well at Farnham – Martin Green, Mark Maltby & Rob Perrin
  • Mortlake and Grooved Ware pottery associated with worked stone in a pit at Lambert’s Hill, Winterbourne Abbas, Dorset – Richard Tabor, With A Contribution By Cheryl Green
  • The Old Manor, Stratton – Rosemary Maw
  • The Thompson’s clay canal – A clay-working enterprise near Lytchett Bay, Poole in the 1830s – Bryan Gambier, Alan Hawkins And Keith Jarvis
  • Witchampton chess pieces – Gill Vickery
  • The Durotriges Project, Phase Two: an interim statement Miles Russell, Paul Cheetham, Damian Evans,Karina Gerdau-Radonic, Ellen Hambleton, Iain Hewitt, Harry Manley, Nivien Speith and Martin Smith
  • The Development of Properties inside the southern defences of Roman Durnovaria: an excavation at Charles Street, Dorchester – Andrew B. Powell with Contributions From Kirsten Egging Dinwiddy, Rachael Seager Smith & J.M. Mills

Proceedings are available from the Museum Shop Price £20.00. However if you become a member of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeology Society the price is £15.00. For more details about membership contact the the membership secretary on 01305 756829 or visit the website for more details www.dorsetcountymuseum.org

For further information and enquires about the Proceedings contact the editor Dr. Paul Lashmar on 01305 262735

Jurassic World – Come and see the World’s Biggest Bite!

Jurassic-WorldJurassic World has been released this weekend – and if you’ve enjoyed the film, now come and see the enormous 150million year old skull of the Weymouth Bay Pliosaur at Dorset County Museum!

The fossil bones of this pliosaur skull were recovered by amateur fossil collector Kevan Sheehan between 2003 and 2008, as they were washed out of a landslide on the coast in Weymouth Bay. The largest piece weighed over 80 kg, and the skull itself is a massive 2.4 metres long. Featured recently as one of National Geographic’s Top 10 Biggest Beasts, the pliosaur was the ‘T Rex of the ocean’, an 18metre long ferocious predator of the seas. Known as ‘The World’s Biggest Bite’, the Weymouth Bay Pliosaur would have been capable of biting the biggest great white shark alive today clean in half.

The Dorset specimen is one of the most complete and best preserved skulls ever found, and as a result it has provided new insights into our understanding of how these enormous animals evolved.

Richard Edmonds and Kevan Sheehan with the Pliosaur skull © DCM

Richard Edmonds and Kevan Sheehan with the Pliosaur skull © DCM

Since its discovery, hundreds of hours have been spent carrying out a detailed analysis and cleaning away the rock to expose the detail of the fossil underneath. Alongside this conservation work an intensive programme involved the Jurassic Coast team and Dorset County Museum working together to produce an exciting, interactive display showcasing the fossil with the theme ‘The World’s Biggest Bite’. Mounted dramatically on a specially constructed plinth that shows the jaws in an awe-inspiring open-mouthed position, the story of the fossil is interpreted through a series of film presentations accompanied by a life-size model of the pliosaur’s head.

Dr. Jon Murden, Director said “It’s amazing to see this skull up close in the Museum – standing next to it you can really appreciate its enormous size, and get a feel for the terrifying predator it once was.”

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The Chickerell Plesiosaur – Cimoliosaurus richardsonii

Plesiosaur

Plesiosaur

From the ‘Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society’ Volume 10, 1889, an article written by by John Clavell Mansel-Pleydell, Esq., F.L.S, F.G.S. entitled ‘Cimoliosaurus richarsoni , Lydekker (n. sp.) 

Towards the end of the Mesozoic age a remarkable diminution of the huge reptiles which swarmed in the seas of that period commenced, and at the beginningof the succeeding age, Tertiary their annihilation was nearly complete, occasioned by great physical changes, especially affecting the relative positions of land and sea, the sea predominating largely “over the land in Europe. We pass from strata of considerable uniformity and of immense thickness over large and extensive areas to beds of a great variety of structure, from deep to shallow seas, estuaries, and rivers. With one or two doubtful exceptions, not a single Mesozoic species passed up into the Tertiary strata; the numbers of the new genera and species, greatly exceeding those of the previous age. Western Europe at this period had four considerable seas instead of one as now — the Anglo-Parisian, the Pyrennean, the Mediterranean, and one which covered the western parts of France from Normandy to Nantes.

As the chalk rose above the sea and underwent extensive denudation, a material diminution of temperature resulted, mainly through alterations of the ocean currents, which occasioned a disastrous result upon reptile life. During the deposition of the oolitic beds there was a complete uniformity, for, although occasional subsidences occurred, as shewn by the Oxford and Kimmeridge clays, with evidences of tide-level and shore conditions, no great or important break occurred. At the commencement of the Cretaceous age, on the other hand, there was a gradual submergence of land, accompanied by a considerable extension of the sea-area.

The marine beds of Punfield, near Swanage, which rest upon the great fresh-water deposits of the Hastings sands, are a good illustration of this initiatory change. Its effects are remarkably shown in the Yale of Blackmore, where, there is a great overlap or covering over of the upper oolitic beds by the chalk. The Hastings sands, Purbeck beds, and Portland strata are hidden, causing an apparent unconformity of the beds, as if the Lower Greensand had succeeded the Kimmeridge clay directly, without first covering over the intervening beds. Another subsidence and consequent invasion of the sea occurred during the deposition of the Upper Greensand, which spread itself over the oolitic formations as it passed on westwards, finally resting on the Trias of East Devon.

These changes materially affected the climate and temperature of those parts which came under their influence, especially through the alteration of ocean-currents. What would the climate of the greater part of Europe be, if the Gulf Stream was stopped or deflected? The Atlantic would be deprived of one-fifth of the amount of heat it is now receiving in addition to what it has in virtue of the temperature of space. The temperature would be lowered to a condition of climate as severe as that of North Greenland at the present day. If, again, the warm currents of the North Pacific were to be stopped, the northern hemisphere would be subjected to an entire glaciation. The fossils of the Palaeozoic age seem to indicate a uniform mild or temperate condition of climate, but not so in the succeeding Carboniferous age, which shows signs of reaction.

The late Mr. Godwin Austin found large angular blocks in the carboniferous strata of France, which could only be accounted for by referring their inclusion to the agency of ice-carriage, by glacier or iceberg. Large blocks of granite are met with in Scotland in the detrital beds of the coal-basins, which Professor Geikie and other eminent geologists attribute to glacial action. A large block of crystalline rock resembling granite was found embedded in a pit of white chalk near Croydon, and with it were other smaller boulders, all water-worn and composed of a different kind of rock, together with a compact mass of silicious sand derived from the waste of coast line of crystalline rocks, of which there are none in the neighbourhood of Croydon.

All had sunk together without separating, and must have been firmly held together both during the time that they were floating, and whilst sinking to the bottom of the cretaceous sea. Independent of seasonal changes, circulation between the surface and thesea-depths is aided by the co-operation of heat and gravitation. The Gulf of Mexico, which is not exposed to any cold supply of water from the North Pole, is a perfect reservoir of heat; further north, close to the shore of Massachusetts, is a cold current running southwards 60 or 80 miles wide. There are thus two currents of different temperatures running side by side in opposite directions and only mingling, where their edges impinge upon each other. Again, the Gulf Stream divides itself into several channels, the water of which is warm where the channels are deep, and cold in the shallower channels, occasioned by the water, low in temperature, rising from considerable depths over submarine elevated ridges.

We can now see the influence ocean-currents had, as they have now, upon determining the temperature of the globe, and the consequent disastrous effect upon cold-blooded reptiles when suddenly lowered. We have not time to dwell further upon this part of the subject, nor to show that Europe had not at the commencement of the Tertiary age its present continental character) but an insular one, giving free access to the polar currents without the counteracting exchange of warm equatorial currents.

The nearly complete fossil before us belongs to that section of the extinct reptilian class included in the Order Enaliasaurian or sea-lizards, but subsequently divided by Sir Richard Owen, G.C.B., F.R.S., into the Iclitliyopterygia and Sauropterygia; the former represented by the genera Baptanodon, Opthalmosaurus and Ichthyosaurus, the latter by several genera. Until the year 1841 Plesiosaurus was the only representative of this order in Great Britain.

At that date Sir Richard Owen removed from it two species, Plesiosaurus grandis and Plesiosaurus troclianterius, under a new genus Pliosaurus. The fossils of this genus were first founded upon two limbs, one of which is preserved in the British Museum, ,the other in our County Museum. It had an enormous head, supported by a short neck, in which it approached the great freshwater Saurians of the present day, with characteristic vertebrae, having a tubercular rising in the centre of the centrum, and resembling Plesiosaurus in its fin-bones and elongated phalanges. Their vertical range was restricted to the middle and upper oolites, whereas Plesiosaurus extended from the Rhætic beds right through to the chalk. Plesiosaurus is characterised by a very long neck and a short tail. The vertebrae are deeper and more solid than those of Ichthyosaurus; the neural arches are ancliylosed with strong outstretched transverse blades to strengthen the spinal column and to sustain the strain upon it in shallow water ; coast-lines, estuaries, and rivers probably being the usual resorts of these monsters.

Their remains have been found in the Wealden freshwater deposits. Ichthyosaurus, on the other hand, lived in. the deep seas, visiting the land only occasionally. It has a weak spinal column : the two faces of the centrum nearly meet in the centre, and the neural arches are unanchy-losed, in which respect it differs from Plesiosaurus. The Immerus and femur of some Plesiosauri — e.g., Plesiosaurus Manselii have a third bone in addition to the ulna and radius, and to the tibia and fibula, which T. W. Hulke, Esq., F.R.S., names the os intermedium and places it between the ulna and radius, tibia and .fibula, the homologue of which is found in the front and hind limbs of some living Saurians. A very interesting morphological question arises as to the possibility of tracing the homology of these bones and their relation to the carpal and tarsal elements of the higher vertebrates.

I have already referred to this splendid Plesiosaurian specimen in my paper on the fossil reptiles of Dorset, and expressed my opinion that it might possibly turn out to be Plesiosaurus plicatus of Phillips. I am now inclined to change my mind and to call it Murcenosaurus Leedsii Seeley, a subgeiius of Plesiosaurus characterised by its shoulder and pelvic girdles having only one coraco-scapula and one obturator foramen, and by a difference in the union of the neural arches, as well as by distinct forms of the ulna and radius, tibia, and fibula. Possibly these differences will not be held sufficient by Mr. Lydekker to justify Professor Seeley’s separation. This palaeontologist is now engaged in tabulating and arranging the fossil reptilian remains in the British Museum ; the result of his labours on the Crocodilia and Deinosauria will soon be before the public, as the volume is now in the printer’s hands, and will be doubtless as invaluable an addition to Paleontological literature as are his five volumes upon the Fossil Mammalia of our National Museum.

Cimoliosaurus richardsoniidiscovered at Chickerell, near Weymouth by Nelson and Helen Richardson in 1889

Cimoliosaurus richardsonii discovered at Chickerell, near Weymouth by Nelson and Helen Richardson in 1889 DCM © 2015

The remains of this Plesiosaur were found in a bed of Oxford clay in the neighbourhood of Weymouth last winter, and through the indefatigable and intelligent industry of Mr. and Mrs. Richardson, of  ‘Montevideo,’ they have been built up in their present satisfactory condition. The head is missing, which is not surprising, as having only one articulation with the neck, and that an exceedingly small one, it possibly became detached before the carcase settled down in its grave of clay ; that a considerable time elapsed previous to its being finally covered over may be inferred by the aggregations of oyster shells upon the vertebrae and bones, which could only have been attached when the body was uncovered. The spinal column consists of 71 vertebras, of which 31 are cervicals, 19 dorsals, 2 sacrals, and 19 caudals. The shoulder-girdle is nearly complete, consisting of coracoids,- scapulas, and pre-scapulse, two fore and one hind limb (humerus and femur), small portions only of the pubes, the ischia and ilia, radius, ulna, tibia, fibula, carpal, and metacarpal bones, several phalanges, and ribs.

Cimoliosaurus richardsonii

Cimoliosaurus richardsonii DCM © 2015

VERTEBRAE. — The dorsal vertebras resemble the last two cervicals, the centrum is rough, its height and length about equal, and both shorter than the breadth. In the fore part of the dorsal region the neural spines are inclined backwards, they then become vertical, and afterwards incline forwards. The neural-arches are not well preserved, only a few retaining their transverse processes. The centra are altered in form to allow the ribs to be raised, on the neural arch; their sides are compressed with a foramen near the middle of some ; the neural spines widen and are extremely compressed from side to side ; the position of the transverse processes remain the same throughout. The cervical and caudal vertebrse are characteristics of this long-necked, short-tailed family, by the non-attachment of the ribs to the shoulder-girdle of the former, and by the long chevron bones of the latter.

PECTORAL GIRDLE. — The coracoids have a short median symphysis five inches long; and diverge from their posterior border, taking an outward diagonal direction, and terminating hy a convex sweep outwards into an extremely thin dilated plate. The bones are thickest where the scapula and humerus articulate, forming a transverse ridge or keel. This ridge is equally marked on the dorsal as well as the ventral surface. Their width immediately behind the articulation is 15 inches, the least width across is 20 inches. The length of the scapular-articulation is three inches, looking obliquely and forward, and lies in front of the ridge. The scapula consists of a plate which is anchylosed to the coracoid, and from which a bone rises and ascends towards the dorsal surface, making an angle of about 50° with the central plate. This plate is 6in. long and 4in. broad. The inner margin, which is thin and concave at the base, is a continuation of the curve of the front border of the coracoid bone. There is 110 indication of clavicle or inter-clavicle bones. The inner margin of the ascending plate is concave, the outer straight. The coraco-scapular foramen,(It appears from a complete restoration now made by Mr. Richardson of the pectoral girdle that the coraco-scapular foramen was divided by a median bony bar as is now known to be the case in C. plicatus (Leedsii), of which the original restoration was erroneous.) one of the differences upon which Professor Seeley forms his genus Murcenosaurus, is not subdivided into two foramina, as is the case with many of this family. This continuous foramen is bounded laterally by the concave inner border of the scapula and posteriorly by the anterior margin of the coracoid. It is 14in. wide from side to side and 4in. from the anterior to the posterior margins.

PELVIC BONES. — The pubes are thin, a small portion only of them is preserved, and there is no indication of the syinphysis, this part of the bone being unfortunately lost. The outer margins are compressed from side to side, and are not so deep as those of the coracoid. The length is 18¾ in. Both the ischia are well preserved. Their length from the median line to the femoral margin is 8in. ; breadth at distal end, 5⅛in.; at proximal end, 8¼in.; at the narrowest part, 2¼|in. The iliac bones are expanded at both extremities, so as to extend over the upper part of the head of the femur.

HUMERUS. — The third part of the proximal end of the humerus is cylyndrical and thick ; it then widens into a broad distal end, shewing an articulate surface.

Cimoliosaurus richarsoniCimoliosaurus richardsoni. — Ventral aspect of part of the right pectoral limb ⅛ nat. size; h humerus ; tr, trochanter of ditto; r, radius; u, ulna ; r’, radiale; i, intermedium; u’, ulnare.
The ulna and radius are short, the radial portion concave ; two of the carpal bones are trigonal, the rest are polygonal.

FEMUR. — The articular surface of the femur is deeply pitted and tuberculate. The proximal end is constricted below the head before it begins to expand. Both margins are nearly straight and gradually flatten out into a broad distal end. Length 1⅝in., breadth 8in., 3¾in. at the narrowest part of the shaft. The tibia and fibula, and several of the carpal and phalangal bones, are well preserved.

Since this paper was read last autumn before the members of the Club, the Plesiosauridœ have undergone a complete revision under the experienced and critical eye of Mr. Lydekker, F.G.S., to whom I am indebted for his valuable assistance in the classification of this saurian. He refers Mr. Richardson’s saurian to the genus Cimoliosaurus which he distinguishes from Plesiosaurus on account of structural differences, especially in the shoulder-girdle, which are of so marked a character as to require a generic distinction.

He restricts Plesiosaurus proper to those whose scapulae do not meet in the median line throughout their whole extent from the upper to the lower margin, hut diverge anteriorly about half-way down. The scapulae are rod-like, small, and narrow, and widely separated from each other, resting diagonally upon a long plate (omosternum) which is wedged into the coracoid at its summit, taking the place of the clavicle of mammalia and of some reptiles. The anterior portion of each scapula lies at right angles to the dorsal portion, which has a long projection. Cimoliosaurus, on the other hand, has large, broad scapulae, which meet at the median line throughout, and are in the same plane with the coracoids, forming with these one shield-like plate. The size and strength of the scapulae do not require the supporting bone omosternum of Plesiosaurus. The dorsal plates, as with the Plesiosaurus are at right angles to the ventral, but differ in being short and narrow. Mr. Lydekker, finding the fossil possesses all the characters referable to Cimoliosaurus, gives it a place in that genus.

It is, however, specifically distinct from C. phcatus, Phil., the only other known Oxford clay member of the family, and to which I referred it in vol. ix. of “The Proceedings.” Among the other distinctive characters already described, the cervical vertebrae are shorter with flatter, terminal faces, and about 31 in number instead of 44 as in plicatus. Mr. Lydekker names it Cimoliosaurus richardsoni after its fortunate discoverer. Plesiosaurus proper is restricted to the Rhæustic and Liassic beds, while Cimoliosaurus extends vertically from the Inferior Oolite to the Upper Chalk inclusive.

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